DrugLib.com — Drug Information Portal

Rx drug information, pharmaceutical research, clinical trials, news, and more

INVEST: INternational VErapamil SR Trandolapril STudy

Information source: University of Florida
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Hypertension; Coronary Artery Disease

Intervention: Verapamil SR/Trandolapril/Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) (Drug); Atenolol/HCTZ/Trandolapril (Drug)

Phase: Phase 4

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: University of Florida

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Carl J Pepine, MD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: University of Florida


Because blood pressure affects the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and the entire body, it is important to keep it as normal as possible. There are several different ways to control blood pressure and to prevent or limit the development of heart disease due to high blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to compare two treatments to see how well they work and the difference in their side effects. One treatment includes the use of a calcium antagonist drug (Isoptin sustained release [SR] or Verapamil SR). The other treatment excludes the calcium antagonist and may include a non-calcium antagonist drug called a beta blocker (Tenormin or Atenolol). Both treatments may also include medication called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and water pills. None of the drugs in this study are experimental, they are all approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Clinical Details

Official title: INternational VErapamil SR Trandolapril STudy

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Primary outcome: First occurrence of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) or nonfatal stroke

Secondary outcome:


Nonfatal MI

Nonfatal stroke

Newly diagnosed diabetes

BP control


Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding

Alzheimer's Disease

Parkinson's Disease

Cardiovascular (CV) hospitalizations

Quality of life


Detailed description: INVEST is an investigator initiated international, prospective, randomized study comparing two pharmacotherapy strategies to control hypertension in ambulatory patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). One strategy, the calcium antagonist care strategy, centers on a calcium antagonist (verapamil SR) followed by addition of an ACE inhibitor (trandolapril) and then diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide) as needed to achieve target blood pressures (BP). The other strategy, the non-calcium antagonist care strategy, uses a beta-blocker (atenolol) followed by addition of low-dose diuretic and then an ACE inhibitor (trandolapril) as needed to reach target BP. In either strategy additional drugs can be added provided the calcium antagonist is retained in the calcium antagonist care strategy and calcium antagonists are omitted in the non-calcium antagonist care strategy. The study is organized into 15 international regions with about 1,500 study investigators randomizing approximately 22,000 patients who will be treated for at least two years. The primary response variable is the occurrence of adverse outcome, defined as any of the following events: all cause mortality, nonfatal MI or nonfatal stroke. A number of secondary response variables, including newly diagnosed diabetes will also be evaluated. The primary objective of this trial is to examine the hypothesis that the risk for adverse outcomes (all cause mortality, nonfatal MI or nonfatal stroke) in hypertensive patients with CAD is at least equivalent during treatment of hypertension with a calcium antagonist strategy when compared with a non-calcium antagonist strategy. Unique features of INVEST are, in addition to its size and international scope, its design to mimic standard clinical practice and its all electronic online data entry, drug distribution system, study management system, and electronic physician compensation. This system will permit the entire trial to be conducted via the Internet. This design is believed to be a forerunner of clinical trials research for the future.


Minimum age: 50 Years. Maximum age: N/A. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria:

- Male or female

- Age 50 to no upper limit

- Hypertension documented according to the 6th report of the Joint National Committee

on Detection and Evaluation of the treatment of high BP (JNC VI) and the need for drug therapy (previously documented hypertension in patients currently taking antihypertensive agents is acceptable)

- Documented CAD (e. g., classic angina pectoris (stable angina pectoris; Heberden

angina pectoris), myocardial infarction three or more months ago, abnormal coronary angiography, or concordant abnormalities on two different types of stress tests)

- Willingness to sign informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

- Unstable angina, angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) or stroke

within one month. Patients taking beta blockers after myocardial infarction are excluded if study enrollment is planned within 12 months of myocardial infarction. No time limitation if not taking beta-blocker.

- Use of a ß-blocker within past two weeks

- Patients without a pacemaker and any of the following:

- Sinus bradycardia (< 50 beats/min.)

- Sick sinus syndrome

- Atrioventricular (AV)-block of more than 1st degree

- Documented contraindication to verapamil; documented contraindication to both

atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide

- Atrial fibrillation/flutter with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW)-Syndrome

- Severe heart failure (New York Heart Association [NYHA] IV).

- Concomitant illnesses (e. g., severe renal failure [Serum creatinine ≥4. 0 mg/dl],

severe hepatic failure or known cirrhosis, etc.) which may affect outcome variables or where life expectancy is two years or less or which are likely to require frequent hospitalizations and/or treatment adjustments.

- Patients with psychiatric, cognitive, or social (e. g., alcoholism, etc.) conditions

that would interfere with giving consent or cooperating or remaining available for follow-up for two years.

Locations and Contacts

University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0277, United States
Additional Information

Related publications:

Reynolds NA, Wagstaff AJ, Keam SJ. Trandolapril/verapamil sustained release: a review of its use in the treatment of essential hypertension. Drugs. 2005;65(13):1893-914. Review.

Pepine CJ, Cooper-Dehoff RM. Cardiovascular therapies and risk for development of diabetes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Aug 4;44(3):509-12. Review.

Keltai M, Johnson JA, Kowey PR, Ried LD, Tueth M. INVEST substudies: design and patient characteristics. Clin Cardiol. 2001 Nov;24(11 Suppl):V9-11.

Erdine S, Handberg EM, Kolb B. Characteristics of patients with coronary artery disease and hypertension: a report from INVEST. Clin Cardiol. 2001 Nov;24(11 Suppl):V6-8.

Questions and answers related to the INternational VErapamil SR/trandolapril STudy (INVEST). Clin Cardiol. 2001 Nov;24(11 Suppl):V30.

Conti CR, Cooper-DeHoff RM. How will INVEST and other hypertension trials change clinical practice? Clin Cardiol. 2001 Nov;24(11 Suppl):V24-9.

Marks R, Bristol H, Conlon M, Pepine CJ. Enhancing clinical trials on the internet: lessons from INVEST. Clin Cardiol. 2001 Nov;24(11 Suppl):V17-23.

Cooper-DeHoff R, Handberg E, Heissenberg C, Johnson K. Electronic prescribing via the internet for a coronary artery disease and hypertension megatrial. Clin Cardiol. 2001 Nov;24(11 Suppl):V14-6.

Kolloch RE. INVEST: results of combined strategies to control blood pressure. Clin Cardiol. 2001 Nov;24(11 Suppl):V12-3.

Pepine CJ, Handberg EM. The vascular biology of hypertension and atherosclerosis and intervention with calcium antagonists and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Clin Cardiol. 2001 Nov;24(11 Suppl):V1-5.

Pepine CJ, Handberg-Thurmond E, Marks RG, Conlon M, Cooper-DeHoff R, Volkers P, Zellig P. Rationale and design of the International Verapamil SR/Trandolapril Study (INVEST): an Internet-based randomized trial in coronary artery disease patients with hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998 Nov;32(5):1228-37.

Starting date: September 1997
Last updated: September 16, 2011

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

-- advertisement -- The American Red Cross
Home | About Us | Contact Us | Site usage policy | Privacy policy

All Rights reserved - Copyright DrugLib.com, 2006-2017