Breathing Meditation With Methylphenidate for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Information source: Khon Kaen University
Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on November 03, 2008
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.
Condition(s) targeted: Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity
Intervention: Breathing Meditation (Behavioral)
Sponsored by: Khon Kaen University
Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Thawatchai Krisanaprakornkit, MD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine , Khon Kaen University
In 2004, the Developmental Clinic of the Child Psychiatric Unit at Srinagarind Hospital, had
80 new pediatric cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) come for
evaluation and intervention. The children were between 7-12 years of age. Most of them were
treated with stimulant medication, (i. e. methylphenidate) to help reduce hyperactivity;
however, both the parents and children needed special help to develop some techniques for
Meditation has been used as an attention training method for many thousands of years, and
was mostly involved with religious or spiritual practices in various parts of the world,
especially in the eastern countries. Breathing meditation is a popular method which can be
applied to all people without instructions that are too complicated. If meditation therapy,
by breathing meditation which is specified to treat attention deficit hyperactivity
disorders, benefits this group of patients, it would be very useful, culturally appropriate,
cost-effective and would reduce the drugs used which will save the child from drug side
Official title: Breathing Meditation With Methylphenidate for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Study design: Treatment, Randomized, Open Label, Active Control, Parallel Assignment, Efficacy Study
Primary outcome: Conners’ Abbreviated Parent Questionnaire (continuous outcome) assessed by the parents at baseline, end of 4-week , at 8 weeks, and at 12 weeks
Child Attention Problems (CAP) Rating Scale at the same time
Drugs used throughout 12 weeks program
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder in
children, with an estimated prevalence of 3-7% in school children (Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR]). The major symptoms of
this disorder are developmentally inconsistent and chronic levels of inattention,
impulsiveness, and hyperactivity.
The numbers of patients visiting physicians for ADHD are increasing from year to year. Boys
are diagnosed with ADHD three times more often than girls. Although the studies on
adolescents are few, the data suggest that about half of the children diagnosed with ADHD
will have persistent symptoms into adolescence and some symptoms persist into adulthood.
The symptoms of ADHD, if not adequately managed, will have many life long effects on the
patients, families, friends, peers, teachers and colleagues. For the patients, the disorder
will impact on patient’s academic, social and emotional performance, and behavioural
development, leading to poor academic achievement, low occupational status, increased risk of
substance abuse and delinquency. More than 30% of children with ADHD repeat a year in
school and up to 56% require remedial tutoring.
Drug therapy began in the 1930s; since the 1970s, stimulants such as dexamphetamine, and
methylphenidate have increasingly been used as the treatment of choice, but remain
controversial. Currently available psychological treatments for ADHD include behavioural
training for teachers and parents, and parenting skills classes, behavioural therapy for
children with ADHD. Psychosocial treatments are generally combined with medication because
each treatment alone has only a partial effect on the core symptoms of the disorder.
Growing scientific evidence, clinical experience and community attitudes are encouraging a
shift to more natural and holistic forms of therapy as alternatives or adjuncts to
pharmacological approaches in a variety of conditions. Meditation has a wide range of
applications, but it is especially useful in treating stress and related disorders to promote
calmness and enhance the attentional ability. A psychological oriented definition stated that
meditation is a set of attentional practices leading to an altered state or trait of
consciousness characterized by expanded awareness, greater presence, and a more integrated
sense of self.
Breathing Meditation could be classified as both concentrative meditation and mindfulness
meditation. The concentrative ability is first developed at the beginning state and followed
by mindful ability.
The studies which use meditation therapy for ADHD are still scarce. In Thailand, Hassasiri A,
et al (1995) had developed meditation program for children with ADHD based on Neo-humanist
concept which comprised of meditation and imagery . The program was tested in pre-post test
design with purposive sampling and yielded the statistical significant different at p < 0. 05
(unpublished data). There has never been research about the effectiveness of breathing
meditation. We are interested in conducting a randomized controlled trial to study the
effectiveness in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Minimum age: 7 Years.
Maximum age: 12 Years.
- Children diagnosed with ADHD by a child psychiatrist using DSM-IV-TR criteria
- Any religious background
- Age between 7-12 years.
- Voluntariness and can adhere to the program
- Autistic spectrum disorders
- Mental retardation
Locations and Contacts
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand; Recruiting
Suchat Paholpak, MD, Phone: 66-43-348384, Email: email@example.com
Thawatchai Krisanaprakornkit, MD, Principal Investigator
Somjitr Rongbudsri, M.Ed., Sub-Investigator
Niramol Patjanasuntorn, MD, Sub-Investigator
The Khon Kaen University Ethics Committee for Human research
Faculty of Medicine , KhonKaen University , Thailand
Starting date: April 2006
Ending date: December 2007
Last updated: April 6, 2007