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The ORIGIN Trial (Outcome Reduction With Initial Glargine Intervention)

Information source: Sanofi
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent

Intervention: insulin glargine (HOE901) (Drug); omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (Drug); placebo (Drug); reusable pen device for insulin injection (Device)

Phase: Phase 3

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: Sanofi

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Clinical Sciences & Operations, Study Director, Affiliation: Sanofi
Hertzel Gerstein, M.D., Principal Investigator, Affiliation: McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences
Salim Yusuf, M.D., Principal Investigator, Affiliation: McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences


The primary objectives of the ORIGIN study were:

- To determine whether insulin glargine-mediated normoglycemia can reduce cardiovascular

morbidity and/or mortality in people at high risk for vascular disease with either Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG), Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) or early type 2 diabetes;

- To determine whether omega-3 fatty acids can reduce cardiovascular mortality in people

with IFG, IGT or early type 2 diabetes. The secondary objectives of the insulin glargine study were to determine if insulin glargine-mediated normoglycemia can reduce:

- total mortality (all causes);

- the risk of diabetic microvascular outcomes;

- the rate of progression of IGT or IFG to type 2 diabetes.

Clinical Details

Official title: A Multicenter, International Randomized, 2x2 Factorial Design Study to Evaluate the Effects of Lantus (Insulin Glargine) Versus Standard Care, and of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Versus Placebo, in Reducing Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in High Risk People With Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG), Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) or Early Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The ORIGIN Trial (Outcome Reduction With Initial Glargine Intervention)

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Primary outcome:

Composite of the First Occurrence of Cardiovascular (CV) Death, Nonfatal Myocardial Infarction (MI) or Nonfatal Stroke

Composite of the First Occurrence of Cardiovascular (CV) Death, Nonfatal Myocardial Infarction (MI), Nonfatal Stroke, Revascularization Procedure or Hospitalization for Heart Failure (HF)

Secondary outcome:

Total Mortality (All Causes)

Composite Diabetic Microvascular Outcome (Kidney or Eye Disease)

Incidence of Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Participants With IGT and/or IFG

Detailed description: The ORIGIN study was conducted by the Population Health Research Institute in Hamilton, Ontario (Canada), working in conjunction with the sponsor, and an independent Steering Committee. Routine visits were to occur at 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks following randomization, then every four months for the rest of the study, for all participants The duration of the study was based on the number of events observed (event-driven study) and was originally planned to be 5 years. In 2008-2009 ORIGIN's follow-up was extended by approximately 2 years, because of published literature of completed studies suggesting that a longer period of effective glycemic contrast between treatments might be needed to see an effect on cardiovascular events.


Minimum age: 50 Years. Maximum age: N/A. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion criteria: I1. Individuals with IFG and/or IGT, or early diabetes, as defined below. Glucose tolerance status was determined by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) that was performed fasting (ie, no consumption of food or beverage other than water for at least 8 hours) at the time of screening for all candidates who were not known to have diabetes. The qualifying OGTT could be obtained up to 4 weeks prior to screening provided that anti-diabetic therapy (if any) remained unchanged between the qualifying OGTT and the

screening visit. Two plasma glucose values were drawn during the OGTT - a fasting value

(FPG) and a value drawn two hours after the 75 g oral glucose load was administered (postprandial plasma glucose [PPG]).

- Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), defined as a PPG value ≥140 and <200 mg/dL (ie, ≥7. 8

and <11. 1 mmol/L), with a FPG <126 mg/dL (7. 0 mmol/L). OR

- Impaired fasting glucose (IFG), defined as an FPG ≥110 and <126 mg/dL (≥6. 1 and <7

mmol/L), without diabetes mellitus (PPG must be <200 mg/dL [11. 1 mmol/L]). OR

- Early type 2 diabetes, defined as a FPG ≥126 mg/dL (7. 0 mmol/L) or a PPG of ≥200 mg/dL

(11. 1 mmol/L), or a previous diagnosis of diabetes, and either:

- on no pharmacological treatment (while ambulatory) for at least 10 weeks prior to

screening, with screening glycated hemoglobin <150% of the upper limit of normal (ULN) for the laboratory (eg, <9% if the ULN is 6%)

- or taking one oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) from among sulfonylureas (SU), biguanides,

thiazolidinediones (TZDs), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs), and meglitinides (MGTs) at a stable dose while ambulatory for at least 10 weeks at the time of screening (or for the 10 weeks prior to hospitalization if identified while hospitalized for a CV event), with screening glycated hemoglobin <133% of the ULN for the laboratory (eg, <8% if the ULN is 6%) if taking this medication at half-maximum dose or greater, and glycated hemoglobin <142% of the ULN for the laboratory (eg, <8. 5% if the ULN is 6%) if taking this medication at less than half-maximum dose. Individuals taking combination products containing two or more OADs were not eligible. I2. Men or women aged 50 years and older I3. At least one of the following CV risk factors:

- previous myocardial infarction (MI) (≥ 5 days prior to randomization)

- previous stroke (≥ 5 days prior to randomization)

- previous coronary, carotid or peripheral arterial revascularization

- angina with documented ischemic changes (at least 2 mm ST segment depression on

electrocardiogram during a Graded Exercise Test [GXT]; or with a cardiac imaging study positive for ischemia); or unstable angina with documented ischemic changes (either ST segment depression of at least 1 mm or an increase in troponin above the normal range but below the range diagnostic for acute myocardial infarction)

- microalbuminuria or clinical albuminuria (an albumin: creatinine ratio ≥ 30 μg/mg in

at least one or timed collection of urine with albumin excretion ≥20 μg/min or ≥30 mg/24 hours or total protein excretion ≥500 mg/24 hours)

- left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiogram or echocardiogram

- significant stenosis on angiography of coronary, carotid, or lower extremity arteries

(ie, 50% or more stenosis)

- ankle-brachial index < 0. 9.

I4. Provision of signed and dated informed consent prior to any study procedures. I5. Ability and willingness to complete study diaries and questionnaires. I6. Demonstrated ability to use the self-glucose-monitoring device, and to self-inject insulin prior to randomization. I7. A negative pregnancy test for all women of childbearing potential (ie, ovulating, pre- menopausal, and not surgically sterile) and the agreement of these women to use a reliable method of birth control to prevent pregnancy during the duration of the study . I8. Willingness to discontinue prior omega-3 PUFA supplements for the duration of the study. Exclusion criteria E1. Type 1 diabetes. E2. Requiring ambulatory insulin treatment or uncontrolled or symptomatic hyperglycemia that is likely to require the addition of ambulatory insulin therapy or a new antidiabetic agent either before or within 2 weeks after randomization. E3. Known anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (anti-GAD Ab) positivity in the past. E4. Screening glycated hemoglobin ≥150% of the ULN for the laboratory (eg, ≥9% if the ULN is 6%). E5. Unwillingness to inject insulin or perform self-monitoring of blood glucose. E6. Nonadherence to the run-in requirement to inject placebo insulin and do capillary glucose monitoring for at least 4 days prior to randomization. E7. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) either planned at the time of screening, or

CABG within the 4 years prior to screening - however, participants with angina, MI, or

stroke since a previous CABG will be eligible for randomization, even if the last CABG was within 4 years. E8. Serum creatinine >2. 0 mg/dL (176 μmol/L) at screening. E9. Active liver disease, or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) >2. 5 times ULN at screening. E10. Chronic or recurrent treatment with systemic corticosteroids, or niacin treatment for hyperlipidemia. E11. Heart failure of New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class III or IV. E12. Expected survival of <3 years for non-CV causes such as cancer. E13. Any other factor likely to limit protocol compliance or reporting of adverse events (AEs). E14. Unwilling or unable to discontinue TZDs. E15. Simultaneous participation in any other clinical trial of an active pharmacologic agent. E16. Unwillingness to permit sites to contact their primary physicians to communicate information about the study and the participant's data and treatment assignment. E17. History of hypersensitivity to the investigational products. E18. Previous randomization in this study. E19. A prior heart transplant, or awaiting a heart transplant. E20. Known infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Locations and Contacts

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Vienna, Austria

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Minsk, Belarus

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Hamilton, Bermuda

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Santiago, Chile

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Beijing, China

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Cali, Colombia

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Zagreb, Croatia

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Horsholm, Denmark

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Tatari, Estonia

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Helsinki, Finland

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Paris, France

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Berlin, Germany

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Budapest, Hungary

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Mumbai, India

Makati City, Dublin, Ireland

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Netanya, Israel

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Milano, Italy

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Riga, Latvia

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Vilnius, Lithuania

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Mexico, Mexico

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Gouda, Netherlands

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Lysaker, Norway

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Makati City, Philippines

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Warszawa, Poland

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Bucuresti, Romania

Sanofi-Aventis Aministrative Office, Moscow, Russian Federation

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Bratislava, Slovakia

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Midrand, South Africa

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Barcelona, Spain

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Bromma, Sweden

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Geneva, Switzerland

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Istanbul, Turkey

Makati City, Caracas, Venezuela

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Bridgewater, New Jersey 08807, United States

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Cove, New South Wales, Australia

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Laval, Quebec, Canada

Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office, Guildford, Surrey, United Kingdom

Additional Information

Related publications:

Origin Trial Investigators, Gerstein H, Yusuf S, Riddle MC, Ryden L, Bosch J. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics for a large international trial of cardiovascular disease prevention in people with dysglycemia: the ORIGIN Trial (Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention). Am Heart J. 2008 Jan;155(1):26-32, 32.e1-6. Epub 2007 Nov 26.

Hanefeld M, Koehler C, Hoffmann C, Wilhelm K, Kamke W, Gerstein H. Effect of targeting normal fasting glucose levels with basal insulin glargine on glycaemic variability and risk of hypoglycaemia: a randomized, controlled study in patients with early Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2010 Feb;27(2):175-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02915.x.

Badings EA, Dyal L, Schoterman L, Lok DJ, Stoel I, Gerding MN, Gerstein HC, Tijssen JG. Strategies to detect abnormal glucose metabolism in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease from the ORIGIN (Outcome Reduction with Initial Glargine Intervention) trial population. J Diabetes. 2011 Sep;3(3):232-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-0407.2011.00124.x.

Ramachandran A, Riddle MC, Kabali C, Gerstein HC; ORIGIN Investigators. Relationship between A1C and fasting plasma glucose in dysglycemia or type 2 diabetes: an analysis of baseline data from the ORIGIN trial. Diabetes Care. 2012 Apr;35(4):749-53. doi: 10.2337/dc11-1918. Epub 2012 Feb 8.

Starting date: August 2003
Last updated: January 24, 2013

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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