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Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) Phases I and II

Information source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on June 20, 2008
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Asthma; Lung Diseases

Intervention: inhaled corticosteroids (Drug); nedocromil (Drug)

Phase: Phase 3

Status: Active, not recruiting

Sponsored by: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
N. Adkinson, Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University
Anne Fuhlbrigge, Affiliation: Brigham and Women's Hospital
H. Kelly, Affiliation: University of New Mexico
Ian Maclusky, Affiliation: The Hospital for Sick Children
Gail Shapiro, Affiliation: Asthma, Inc.
Robert Strunk, Affiliation: Washington University School of Medicine
Stanley Szefler, Affiliation: National Jewish Medical and Research Center
James Tonascia, Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University
James Tonascia, Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University
Robert Zeiger, Affiliation: University of California, San Diego


To evaluate the long term effects of anti-inflammatory therapy compared to bronchodilator therapy on the course of asthma, particularly on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and on physical and psychosocial growth and development.

Clinical Details

Study design: Treatment, Randomized

Detailed description: BACKGROUND:

Asthma is a serious chronic condition, affecting approximately 14 million Americans. People with asthma experience well over 100 million days of restricted activity annually, and costs for asthma care exceed $10 billion a year. Asthma is much more prevalent among children than adults.

Hospitalizations for asthma have been increasing among children. For example, from 1979 to 1987, the hospital discharge rate with asthma as the first-listed diagnosis rose 43 percent among children less than 15 years of age, from 19. 8 to 28. 4 discharges per 10,000 population.

Death rates for asthma are greater in Blacks than in whites, and the difference is increasing. In 1979, Blacks of both sexes were about twice as likely to die from asthma as whites. Over the past decade this ratio has increased, and by 1987 the asthma death rate was almost three times greater among Blacks than whites. In children, these mortality differences between Blacks and whites are even more striking.

Current knowledge about the epidemiology and natural history of childhood asthma is incomplete, but the relationship between asthma early in life and development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adulthood is becoming more apparent. Asthmatic children with persistent and severe asthma symptoms have lower levels of lung function by young adulthood than those with milder disease. Recent longitudinal studies have confirmed a decrease in rate of growth of lung function as measured by FEV1 among symptomatic (primarily wheeze) children compared to asymptomatic children. Among persons who develop COPD, initial level of lung function is the strongest predictor of subsequent rapid decline of ventilatory function.

Thus, less than maximally attained levels of lung function among children with asthma may predispose them to greater than normal decline of lung function later in life. Although the long-term effect of treatment on the course of asthma is not known, the treatment goal of decreasing bronchial hyperresponsiveness and maximizing lung function and growth during childhood may have a beneficial effect on lung health throughout life and prevent progression to irreversible airflow obstruction.

Two classes of medications are currently available for treatment of inflammation--corticosteroids and cromolyn sodium. Inhaled corticosteroids have significantly fewer side effects than systemic administration. Corticosteroids do not inhibit the early asthmatic response, but are effective in suppressing the inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness of the late phase response. Long-term studies of inhaled corticosteroids have shown beneficial effects on lung function as measured by FEV1. However, there has been concern about possible effects of long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids. Although epidemiological studies of the use of inhaled corticosteroids have shown no significant adverse effects, large-scale randomized controlled studies of their effects on children's growth and development are needed.

When CAMP was initiated in the United States, bronchodilator treatment was the most common approach to therapy. Two classes of bronchodilators, inhaled beta-2-adrenergic agonists and oral theophylline, are most frequently prescribed for asthma. To date, no randomized, controlled studies have compared the two classes of anti-inflammatory medications to each other and to bronchodilator therapy on the course of asthma.

The initiative was proposed by the Pulmonary Disease Advisory Committee working group in October 1987 and approved by the full committee at the February 1988 meeting and by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council in May 1990. The Request for Proposals was released in October 1990. Awards were made in September 1991.


Children were randomized to one of three treatment groups to receive either: inhaled albuterol alone, albuterol with inhaled budesonide, albuterol with nedocromil. Upon randomization, data were collected on demographic factors, physical and psychosocial development, clinical factors including medical history and extent of allergies, and quality of life factors including limitation of activity, absenteeism from school, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. All subjects received a common educational program, differing only in the information presented regarding the medication used by the subjects. Each subject was given a standard protocol for dealing with asthma attacks. All subjects were treated and followed for five years with quarterly visits yearly. Recruitment began in July 1993 and ended in June 1995 with the accrual of 1,041 subjects.

The study has been extended for an additional eight years to observe the subjects but not provide asthma treatment. This will allow CAMP to determine the full impact of 4 to 6 years of anti-inflammatory therapy on attaining maximal lung function and final height and on the natural history of asthma through age 26.


Minimum age: 5 Years. Maximum age: 12 Years. Gender(s): Both.


Asthmatic boys and girls, ages 5 to 12 at baseline.

Locations and Contacts

Additional Information

Related publications:

[No authors listed] Design and implementation of a patient education center for the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1998 Dec;81(6):571-81.

[No authors listed] Recruitment of participants in the childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). I. Description of methods: Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. J Asthma. 1999 May;36(3):217-37.

[No authors listed] The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP): design, rationale, and methods. Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Control Clin Trials. 1999 Feb;20(1):91-120.

Zeiger RS, Dawson C, Weiss S. Relationships between duration of asthma and asthma severity among children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Mar;103(3 Pt 1):376-87.

Nelson HS, Szefler SJ, Jacobs J, Huss K, Shapiro G, Sternberg AL. The relationships among environmental allergen sensitization, allergen exposure, pulmonary function, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Oct;104(4 Pt 1):775-85.

Bender BG, Annett RD, Ikle D, DuHamel TR, Rand C, Strunk RC. Relationship between disease and psychological adaptation in children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program and their families. CAMP Research Group. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000 Jul;154(7):706-13.

Larsen GL. Focusing on childhood asthma: the childhood asthma management program (CAMP) J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Mar;103(3 Pt 1):371-3. No abstract available.

Weiss ST, Van Natta ML, Zeiger RS. Relationship between increased airway responsiveness and asthma severity in the childhood asthma management program. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Jul;162(1):50-6.

Annett RD, Aylward EH, Lapidus J, Bender BG, DuHamel T. Neurocognitive functioning in children with mild and moderate asthma in the childhood asthma management program. The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) Research Group. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000 Apr;105(4):717-24.

[No authors listed] Long-term effects of budesonide or nedocromil in children with asthma. The Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. N Engl J Med. 2000 Oct 12;343(15):1054-63.

Huss K, Adkinson NF Jr, Eggleston PA, Dawson C, Van Natta ML, Hamilton RG. House dust mite and cockroach exposure are strong risk factors for positive allergy skin test responses in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001 Jan;107(1):48-54.

Yu O, Sheppard L, Lumley T, Koenig JQ, Shapiro GG. Effects of ambient air pollution on symptoms of asthma in Seattle-area children enrolled in the CAMP study. Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Dec;108(12):1209-14.

Annett RD, Bender BG, Lapidus J, Duhamel TR, Lincoln A. Predicting children's quality of life in an asthma clinical trial: what do children's reports tell us? J Pediatr. 2001 Dec;139(6):854-61.

Weiss ST, Horner A, Shapiro G, Sternberg AL. The prevalence of environmental exposure to perceived asthma triggers in children with mild-to-moderate asthma: data from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001 Apr;107(4):634-40.

Strunk RC, Sternberg AL, Bacharier LB, Szefler SJ. Nocturnal awakening caused by asthma in children with mild-to-moderate asthma in the childhood asthma management program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002 Sep;110(3):395-403.

DeMeo DL, Lange C, Silverman EK, Senter JM, Drazen JM, Barth MJ, Laird N, Weiss ST. Univariate and multivariate family-based association analysis of the IL-13 ARG130GLN polymorphism in the Childhood Asthma Management program. Genet Epidemiol. 2002 Nov;23(4):335-48.

Strunk RC, Bender B, Young DA, Sagel S, Glynn E, Caesar M, Lawhon C. Predictors of protocol adherence in a pediatric asthma clinical trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002 Oct;110(4):596-602.

Kelly HW, Strunk RC, Donithan M, Bloomberg GR, McWilliams BC, Szefler S. Growth and bone density in children with mild-moderate asthma: a cross-sectional study in children entering the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). J Pediatr. 2003 Mar;142(3):286-91.

Bacharier LB, Dawson C, Bloomberg GR, Bender B, Wilson L, Strunk RC; Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Hospitalization for asthma: atopic, pulmonary function, and psychological correlates among participants in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Pediatrics. 2003 Aug;112(2):e85-92.

Tantisira KG, Litonjua AA, Weiss ST, Fuhlbrigge AL; Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Association of body mass with pulmonary function in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Thorax. 2003 Dec;58(12):1036-41.

Silverman EK, Kwiatkowski DJ, Sylvia JS, Lazarus R, Drazen JM, Lange C, Laird NM, Weiss ST. Family-based association analysis of beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms in the childhood asthma management program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Nov;112(5):870-6.

Lange C, Lyon H, DeMeo D, Raby B, Silverman EK, Weiss ST. A new powerful non-parametric two-stage approach for testing multiple phenotypes in family-based association studies. Hum Hered. 2003;56(1-3):10-7.

Slaughter JC, Lumley T, Sheppard L, Koenig JQ, Shapiro GG. Effects of ambient air pollution on symptom severity and medication use in children with asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 Oct;91(4):346-53.

Bender BG, Ellison MC, Gleason M, Murphy JR, Sundstrom DA, Szefler SJ. Minimizing attrition in a long-term clinical trial of pediatric asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 Aug;91(2):168-76.

Raby BA, Silverman EK, Lazarus R, Lange C, Kwiatkowski DJ, Weiss ST. Chromosome 12q harbors multiple genetic loci related to asthma and asthma-related phenotypes. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Aug 15;12(16):1973-9.

Lake SL, Lyon H, Tantisira K, Silverman EK, Weiss ST, Laird NM, Schaid DJ. Estimation and tests of haplotype-environment interaction when linkage phase is ambiguous. Hum Hered. 2003;55(1):56-65.

Bacharier LB, Raissy HH, Wilson L, McWilliams B, Strunk RC, Kelly HW. Long-term effect of budesonide on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in children with mild to moderate asthma. Pediatrics. 2004 Jun;113(6):1693-9.

Covar RA, Spahn JD, Murphy JR, Szefler SJ. Progression of Asthma Measured by Lung Function in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Mar 17 [Epub ahead of print]

Tantisira KG, Lake S, Silverman ES, Palmer LJ, Lazarus R, Silverman EK, Liggett SB, Gelfand EW, Rosenwasser LJ, Richter B, Israel E, Wechsler M, Gabriel S, Altshuler D, Lander E, Drazen J, Weiss ST. Corticosteroid pharmacogenetics: association of sequence variants in CRHR1 with improved lung function in asthmatics treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Jul 1;13(13):1353-9. Epub 2004 May 05.

Lazarus R, Raby BA, Lange C, Silverman EK, Kwiatkowski DJ, Vercelli D, Klimecki WJ, Martinez FD, Weiss ST. Toll-like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Genetic Variation is Associated with Asthma in Two Independent Samples. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Jun 16 [Epub ahead of print]

Covar RA, Szefler SJ, Martin RJ, Sundstrom DA, Silkoff PE, Murphy J, Young DA, Spahn JD. Relations between exhaled nitric oxide and measures of disease activity among children with mild-to-moderate asthma. J Pediatr. 2003 May;142(5):469-75.

Covar RA, Spahn JD, Martin RJ, Silkoff PE, Sundstrom DA, Murphy J, Szefler SJ. Safety and application of induced sputum analysis in childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Sep;114(3):575-82.

Randolph AG, Lange C, Silverman EK, Lazarus R, Silverman ES, Raby B, Brown A, Ozonoff A, Richter B, Weiss ST. The IL12B gene is associated with asthma. Am J Hum Genet. 2004 Oct;75(4):709-15. Epub 2004 Aug 20.

Randolph AG, Lange C, Silverman EK, Lazarus R, Weiss ST. Extended Haplotype in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Gene Cluster Is Associated with Asthma and Asthma-related Phenotypes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Sep 15;172(6):687-92. Epub 2005 Jun 23.

Annett RD, Stansbury K, Kelly HW, Strunk RC. Association of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function with neuropsychological performance in children with mild/moderate asthma. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn C Child Neuropsychol. 2005 Aug;11(4):333-48.

Raby BA, Hwang ES, Steen KV, Tantisira K, Peng S, Litonjua A, Lazarus R, Giallourakis C, Rioux JD, Sparrow D, Silverman EK, Glimcher LH, Weiss ST. T-bet polymorphisms are associated with asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Jan 1;173(1):64-70. Epub 2005 Sep 22.

Raby BA, Van Steen K, Celedon JC, Litonjua AA, Lange C, Weiss ST. Paternal history of asthma and airway responsiveness in children with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Sep 1;172(5):552-8. Epub 2005 Jun 3.

Starting date: September 1991
Ending date: June 2007
Last updated: January 3, 2006

Page last updated: June 20, 2008

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