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Antibiotics to Reduce Chorioamnionitis-Related Perinatal HIV Transmission

Information source: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: HIV Infections

Intervention: Erythromycin (Drug); Nevirapine (Drug); Ampicillin sodium (Drug); Metronidazole (Drug)

Phase: Phase 3

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Taha E Taha, MD, PhD, Study Chair, Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University
Robert Goldenberg, MD, Study Chair, Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham


The purpose of this study is to see if antibiotic drugs given to treat an infection of the uterus during pregnancy can reduce the chances of HIV being passed from an HIV-positive mother to her baby. A link between bacterial disease of the vagina, premature birth, infection of the uterus during pregnancy, and the passing of HIV from a mother to her baby has been found. Early treatment of these problems may reduce the risk of passing HIV from an HIV-positive mother to her baby. [Note: As of 02/21/03, enrollment into this study was halted because preliminary data showed that the study antibiotics were not effective in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission.]

Clinical Details

Official title: Phase III Trial of Antibiotics to Reduce Chorioamnionitis-Related Perinatal HIV Transmission

Study design: Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Masking: Double-Blind, Primary Purpose: Prevention

Detailed description: Obstetric risk factors for HIV maternal-child transmission (MCT) include preterm birth, prolonged rupture of the membranes, and chorioamnionitis. Many preterm births are associated with and likely caused by chorioamnionitis. The relationship between bacterial vaginosis, preterm birth, histologic chorioamnionitis, and perinatal transmission of HIV has been consistently demonstrated. Perinatal HIV transmission is more common in preterm infants, and there is now evidence that subclinical chorioamnionitis is a substantial risk factor for MCT. For this study, the primary hypothesis is that early and appropriate treatment of subclinical chorioamnionitis prior to the onset of spontaneous preterm labor, and/or antibiotic treatment during labor, to prevent premature rupture of membrane-associated-chorioamnionitis, will reduce the risk of perinatal HIV transmission. [Note: As of 02/21/03, enrollment into this study was halted because preliminary data showed that the study antibiotics were not effective in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission.] At 20 to 24 weeks, women who are randomized to receive antibiotics receive metronidazole and erythromycin for 7 days. Women randomized to the control group receive identically appearing placebos. With the onset of contractions and/or premature rupture of membranes, study participants will initiate a second oral course of antibiotics consisting of metronidazole and ampicillin or placebo every 4 hours, continuing after delivery until the course is completed. All HIV-infected women and their neonates will be offered the HIVNET 012 nevirapine (NVP) regimen. If the mother accepts the NVP for herself and her baby, she will be given 1 dose of NVP to be taken at onset of labor, and her baby will receive 1 dose of NVP at 72 hours post-birth or discharge, whichever occurs earlier. If the mother refuses NVP or is uninfected, she will receive a matched placebo at the 26- to 30-week visit to preserve participant confidentiality. This study takes place in Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi, in Lusaka, Zambia, and in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.


Minimum age: N/A. Maximum age: N/A. Gender(s): Female.


Inclusion Criteria

- HIV positive.

- 20 to 24 weeks pregnant.

- Willing to take the planned antibiotic treatment.

- Planning to deliver at 1 of the study sites.

- Willing to come back for follow-up visits for 1 year after the baby is born.

Exclusion Criteria

- Have taken antibiotics, except for syphilis or gonorrhea, within the last 2 weeks.

- Are allergic to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, or metronidazole.

- Have major illnesses, such as diabetes, severe kidney or heart disease, or active

tuberculosis, which might affect the pregnancy.

- Are having major problems with the pregnancy, such as placenta previa, ruptured

membranes, or multiple pregnancy.

- Have a central nervous system disease, such as seizures.

- Are taking anticoagulant drugs.

Locations and Contacts

Megan Valentine, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, United States
Additional Information

Click here for more information about nevirapine

Click here for more information about HIV and pregnancy

Click here for more information on medication regimens for HIV positive pregnant women

Click here for more information on after birth care for HIV positive women and their babies

Haga clic aquí para ver información sobre este ensayo clínico en español.

Related publications:

Goldenberg RL, Andrews WW, Yuan AC, MacKay HT, St Louis ME. Sexually transmitted diseases and adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Clin Perinatol. 1997 Mar;24(1):23-41. Review.

St Louis ME, Kamenga M, Brown C, Nelson AM, Manzila T, Batter V, Behets F, Kabagabo U, Ryder RW, Oxtoby M, et al. Risk for perinatal HIV-1 transmission according to maternal immunologic, virologic, and placental factors. JAMA. 1993 Jun 9;269(22):2853-9.

Hauth JC, Goldenberg RL, Andrews WW, DuBard MB, Copper RL. Reduced incidence of preterm delivery with metronidazole and erythromycin in women with bacterial vaginosis. N Engl J Med. 1995 Dec 28;333(26):1732-6.

Mercer BM, Miodovnik M, Thurnau GR, Goldenberg RL, Das AF, Ramsey RD, Rabello YA, Meis PJ, Moawad AH, Iams JD, Van Dorsten JP, Paul RH, Bottoms SF, Merenstein G, Thom EA, Roberts JM, McNellis D. Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. A randomized controlled trial. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. JAMA. 1997 Sep 24;278(12):989-95.

Last updated: February 13, 2012

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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