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Efficacy of IntraVenous ImmunoGlobulins in Toxic Shock Syndromes: a Paediatric Pilot Study

Information source: Hospices Civils de Lyon
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Toxic Shock Syndrome

Intervention: Intravenous human immunoglobulin (Drug); Albumin (Drug)

Phase: Phase 2

Status: Recruiting

Sponsored by: Hospices Civils de Lyon

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Etienne Javouhey, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: Service de réanimation pédiatrique, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Groupement Hospitalier Est, 59 Boulevard Pinel, 69677 BRON, FRANCE

Overall contact:
Etienne Javouhey, Phone: 04 27 85 61 56, Ext: +33, Email: etienne.javouhey@chu-lyon.fr


Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes produce many virulence factors. Some of them are responsible for severe infections in humans. Superantigen toxins synthesized by S. aureus or by S. pyogenes, are responsible for toxic shock syndromes (TSS) which lethality can attain 25% in children with validated criteria of septic shock. Previous studies, performed in vitro and in vivo in animals, have shown that Intravenous immunoglobulins [IVIG] contain antibodies [Ab] against these toxins and, when used at high concentration, IVIG are able to neutralize their toxicity. However, in all these studies, IVIG administration has been preventive and there is no reliable data demonstrating their therapeutic efficacy in vitro or in vivo in humans or in animals, once the disease is present. The efficacy of IVIG is established in other pathologies for which the role of the superantigens [superAg] is suspected, like Kawasaki disease in children. The mechanism of action, although not perfectly known, involves at the same time a direct effect on superAg (Ag-Ab complex) and indirect effects like the neutralisation of superAg within the network of anti-idiotype Ab or the neutralisation of the T-cells receptors. Staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shocks imply bacterial exotoxins that are superAg. It seems thus consistent to imagine a same type of treatment with IVIG. However, there is currently no evidence of the efficacy of IVIG in this indication. One of the explanations relies on the lack of statistical power of previous adult studies, which principal objective was to show a reduction of the mortality. Taking into account the low prevalence of TSS, it has been hard to recruit enough patients to have the required statistical power. Moreover, some works have been extracted from larger studies on septic shock and the definitions of the TSS were nor always very reliable. Lastly, if the investigators consider the definition of the TSS as mentioned by the " Centre for Disease Control " [CDC], for which any hypotension, even a simple orthostatic hypotension, serves the diagnosis of TSS as long as the other symptoms are present, it is obvious that many patients are likely to be recruited in a study although it is highly probable that their health will get better with a " standard " treatment. The definition of a " real " TSS can be refined, keeping the CDC criteria, but changing the hypotension criterion in a more accurate criterion as described in the " surviving sepsis campaign ", internationally accepted and based on norms adapted to the age for paediatric forms. IVIG therapy is very expensive and TSS is not recognized as indication of IVIG according to their marketing authorization. The feasibility of a randomized controlled study with this treatment needs to be assessed as it would be hazardous to conduct a large prospective RCT without having first assessed this feasibility in terms of recruitment rates, consent rates or compliance rates. Inclusion, randomisation and collect of inform consent in the context of severe shock are challenging and require evaluation of feasibility. The sample size calculation of the large study on mortality required estimations of the event in the specific population of children with criteria of septic shock. Surrogates markers of outcome need to be better defined. For example it would be useful to determine the evolution of organ dysfunctions with and without IVIG treatment in this population. Various organ failure scores, used upon admission and later on, have been validated in adults and in children. The absence of improvement of the Paediatric logistic organ dysfunction (Pelod) score over time is a good indicator of mortality in Paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). It could be used as surrogate marker to evaluate the efficacy of IVIG.

Clinical Details

Official title: Efficacy of IntraVenous ImmunoGlobulins (IVIG) in Toxic Shock Syndromes (Staphylococcal and Streptococcal): a Paediatric Pilot Study.

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)

Primary outcome:

Recruitment rate

Compliance with the protocol design

Practical feasibility

Financial feasibility

Secondary outcome:

Evolution of organ failure score (PELOD 2)


Measure of the Cumulative vasopressor index (CVI) .

Adverse events (AE) and serious AE

Mechanism of superantigens (ancillary biological study: immune response: HLA-DR, Treg pool)

In vivo mechanism of IVIG (ancillary biological study: Vbêta, Ig dosage)

measure of lactate clearance


Minimum age: 1 Month. Maximum age: 17 Years. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria:

- 1 month

- Admitted to PICU, with a strong suspicion of staphylococcal or streptococcal

infection (at least one of the following criteria):

- Diagnostic of TSS according to CDC (Centre for Disease Control) criteria or Group A

streptococcus necrotizing fasciitis (positive streptest) or Varicella with infected lesions and erythroderma or positive streptest or Erythroderma in menstrual period or Pleuropneumopathy with erythroderma or positive streptest in pleural fluid or Erythroderma and biological fluid positive to type A streptococcus ou staphylococcus (articular, pericardial, bronchopulmonar, pharynx…)

- with shock resistant to fluid resuscitation defined as the presence, despite 40 ml/kg

of fluid volume in 1 hour, of: hypotension (<5th percentile) or systolic arterial pressure < 2 SD for age or need for vasoactive drugs in order to maintain AP at a normal level (dopamine > 5µg/kg/min or dobutamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline, milrinone whatever the dose) or 2 signs of hypo perfusion among: metabolic acidosis with a base deficit > 5 lactate x 2 laboratory normal value diuresis < 0,5 ml/kg/h capillary refill time > 5 sec difference skin/central temperature > 3°C

- Consent to participation

Exclusion Criteria:

- First signs of shock appeared more than 24h ago

- Known hypersensitivity to one of the components (study treatment or placebo)

- Hypersensitivity to homologous immunoglobulins, specifically in very rare cases of Ig

A deficit, when the patient has anti-IgA antibodies

- Known hyperprolinemia

- Immunodeficiency (acquired or not)

- Immunosuppressive drugs

- No health cover

Locations and Contacts

Etienne Javouhey, Phone: 04 27 85 61 56, Ext: +33, Email: etienne.javouhey@chu-lyon.fr

Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Bron 69677, France; Recruiting
Etienne Javouhey, Phone: 04 27 85 61 56, Ext: +33, Email: etienne.javouhey@chu-lyon.fr
Tiphanie Ginhoux, Phone: 04 27 85 77 23, Ext: +33, Email: tiphanie.ginhoux@chu-lyon.fr
Etienne Javouhey, Principal Investigator
Additional Information

Starting date: November 2014
Last updated: April 13, 2015

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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