DrugLib.com — Drug Information Portal

Rx drug information, pharmaceutical research, clinical trials, news, and more

The Reinforcing Mechanisms of Smoking in Adult ADHD

Information source: University of California, Irvine
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: ADHD

Intervention: ADHD medication (Drug); Placebo (Drug)

Phase: Phase 1/Phase 2

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: University of California, Irvine

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Jean G Gehricke, Ph.D., Principal Investigator, Affiliation: University of California, Irvine


Whereas the smoking prevalence rates in the general population are declining, rates among people diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continue to be elevated. Smoking may be a form of self-medication in people with ADHD, which has specific reinforcing mechanisms such as improvement of ADHD core symptoms, enhancement of moods and arousal, or a combination of both. In addition, the reinforcing effects of smoking may be potentiated by stimulant medication. The study examined the reinforcing effects of ad libitum smoking with and without ADHD medication in adult smokers with clinically diagnosed ADHD. Participants were adults with ADHD. The effects of two day of ADHD medication compared to two days on placebo for were studied on nicotine intake (i. e., cotinine levels). In addition, task performance on the Continuous Performance Task and nicotine withdrawal symptoms were examined in response to ADHD medication + smoking a cigarette versus ADHD medication + abstinence versus placebo medication + smoking versus placebo medication + abstinence. The study identified the reinforcing mechanisms of smoking in interaction with ADHD medication. The findings will contribute to a better understanding of nicotine addiction and facilitate the development of targeted smoking cessation and prevention programs for individuals with ADHD and other people with deficiencies in impulse control and excessive risk taking.

Clinical Details

Official title: The Reinforcing Mechanisms of Smoking in Adult ADHD

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator), Primary Purpose: Basic Science

Primary outcome: The Effects of ADHD Medication Versus Placebo on Cotinine Levels

Secondary outcome:

The Interacting Effects of Smoking and Overnight Abstinence With ADHD Medication and Placebo on Continuous Performance Task (CPT) Errors of Omission.

The Interacting Effects of Smoking and Abstinence With ADHD Medication and Placebo on Nicotine Withdrawal Measured by the Shiffman-Jarvik Withdrawal Questionnaire.


Minimum age: 18 Years. Maximum age: 45 Years. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria:

- An age of 18 to 45 years

- A history of ADHD

- Current diagnosis of ADHD according to clinical criteria

- Current treatment with stimulant medication

- Smoking of 10 cigarettes or more per day

Exclusion Criteria:

- Treatment for any major medical illness such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes, skin

diseases, current major depressive episode, and schizophrenia even if currently controlled by medication

- Current pregnancy, as measured by a pregnancy test (Clear Blue Easy, Unipath,

Bedford, UK), or planning to become pregnant within the next 6 months. These individuals will not be included because smoking may cause harm to the unborn fetus

- Nursing mothers

- Non-English speaking people, because the majority of measurements used in the study

have not been validated in languages other than English

Locations and Contacts

Department of Pediatrics, Irvine, California 92612, United States
Additional Information

Starting date: September 2006
Last updated: September 23, 2011

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

-- advertisement -- The American Red Cross
Home | About Us | Contact Us | Site usage policy | Privacy policy

All Rights reserved - Copyright DrugLib.com, 2006-2017