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Trial of Zileuton CR in Children and Adults With Sickle Cell Disease

Information source: Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Sickle Cell Disease

Intervention: Zileuton (Drug)

Phase: Phase 1

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Punam Malik, MD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati


The purpose of this research study is to test the safety of Zileuton and see what effects (good and bad) it has on you, other children and adults with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). The investigators also want to see how Zileuton is handled by your body at different doses. Zileuton is a drug that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of asthma for people age 12 and older. The FDA has not approved Zileuton for the treatment of SCD, so it is being studied as an investigational drug for SCD through an application to the FDA. In asthma patients, Zileuton helps by reducing inflammation. This study will see if Zileuton helps to reduce inflammation associated with SCD.

Clinical Details

Official title: Phase I Trial of Zileuton CR in Children and Adults With Sickle Cell Disease

Study design: Allocation: Non-Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Primary outcome:

Adverse Event Grading as a Measure of Safety and Tolerability

Characterization of the Distribution of Zileuton Pharmacokinetic Parameter Estimates and Drug Exposure

Detailed description: Inflammation is now recognized as central to the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD), and is manifest as leukocytosis, elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, and activation of monocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and endothelial cells. It is present at steady state and is strongly associated with acute events, acute chest and early mortality. Inflammation contributes to endothelial cell dysfunction, potentiates vaso-occlusion, and may also give rise to the airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) that often accompanies SCD. A spectrum of lung disease is seen in this patient population, from AHR and obstructive lung disease in children, to restrictive lung disease and pulmonary vascular remodeling in adults. Evidence from our laboratory suggests that a specific angiogenic cytokine, Placenta Growth Factor that is produced by hyperplastic erythroid marrow cells and elevated in SCD, contributes to activation of monocytes and endothelial cells by inducing a key leukotriene (LT) synthetic enzyme, 5-Lipoxygenase (5LO). 5LO increases production of LT. LT are among the most potent inflammatory mediators known. LT-B4 is a very potent chemoattractant and activator of PMN and enhances endothelial cell activation, and cysteinyl LT produce airway smooth muscle constriction and inflammation in lung. Elevated LT-B4 and cysteinyl LT, and a high incidence of AHR are observed in patients with SCD. Zileuton (ZL) is a specific inhibitor of 5LO that decreases LT production, and is FDA-approved for treatment of asthma for individuals 12 years of age or older. In the context of SCD, ZL reduced adhesion of PMN and sickle RBC to rat pulmonary vasculature. In vitro data shows that ZL also increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production from erythroid cells in vitro, and could have additive/synergistic effects with hydroxyurea (HU). Thus, ZL may be beneficial in SCD by reducing inflammation, mitigating AHR, and increasing HbF. We hypothesize that inhibition of 5LO activity with ZL will be safe, feasible; will significantly reduce leukotrienes and biomarkers of inflammation, will decrease AHR; and will induce HbF in patients with SCD. We will test this hypothesis in a Phase I study of ZL in SCD. First, we will establish a safe dose of ZL and its pharmacokinetics in patients with SCD. The secondary objectives will be to determine its pharmacodynamic effects on biological endpoints and compliance to twice daily ZL administration.


Minimum age: 12 Years. Maximum age: N/A. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria:

- Confirmed diagnosis of SCD (HbSS,HbSC,HBS Beta thalassemia, or HBS 0 thalassemia)

- Absence of an acute sickle event or ACS in the last 4 wks

- Not on hydroxyurea

- Ability to swallow pills

- Ability to comply with pulmonary function testing

Exclusion Criteria:

- History of active hepatitis

- HIV positivity

- Pregnant or nursing

- Unable to comply with contraceptive measures

- On an investigational drug within 4 weeks

- On hydroxyurea, leukotriene antagonists (e. g., Singulair) or steroids,

theophylline, coumadin, terfenadine or beta-2 blockers that affect the airway: carteolol, carvedilol, labetalol, nadolol, penbutolol, pindolol, sotalol and timolol, or on propranolol for the last four weeks

- On chronic transfusion therapy

- A serious, concurrent illness that would limit ability to complete or comply with the

study requirements

- Males who drink alcoholic beverages >5-6 drinks/day or females who drink alcoholic

beverages >3-4 drinks/day

Locations and Contacts

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, United States
Additional Information

Starting date: September 2010
Last updated: June 17, 2014

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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