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Nitrous Oxide for Pain Management During In-office Transcervical Sterilization

Information source: University of New Mexico
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Contraception; Inhalation of Nitrous Oxide

Intervention: In-office Transcervical Sterilization (EssureĀ®) (Procedure); Standard Oral pain medications (Drug); Intramuscular Ketorolac (Drug); Placebo pills (Drug); Oxygen (Other); Nitrous Oxide (Other)

Phase: N/A

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: University of New Mexico

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Rameet Singh, MD, MPH, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: UNM OB GYN Division of Family Planning


This is a randomized, double blind study that aims to measure the difference in maximum pain experienced during in-office transcervical sterilization (Essure®) for women receiving either inhaled nitrous oxide or standard oral analgesia (Vicodin and Lorazepam) with inhaled oxygen. The investigators hypothesize that inhaled nitrous oxide will reduce the pain experienced more than standard oral medications in women undergoing in-office transcervical sterilization.

Clinical Details

Official title: Nitrous Oxide for Pain Management During In-office Transcervical Sterilization

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator), Primary Purpose: Treatment

Primary outcome:

Change from Baseline in Pain Scale measurement during and after the procedure

Pain Scale measurement - maximum pain experienced

Secondary outcome:

Change from Baseline in Patient Anxiety Scale after the procedure

Patient Satisfaction (5-point Likert scale)

Provider Ease of Insertion (0-100mm VAS)

Detailed description: Hysteroscopic permanent sterilization with EssureĀ® is increasingly performed in the outpatient setting. No optimal outpatient analgesia regimen has been identified for the EssureĀ® procedure. The investigators propose a study of inhaled nitrous oxide administered with oxygen, hereafter referred to as nitrous oxide (NO), as an intervention to lower pain experienced during the in-office procedure. The investigators hypothesize that, compared to standard oral medications, inhaled NO will decrease patient anxiety associated with the in-office procedure, as well as increase patient satisfaction and provider perceived ease of device insertion. Women presenting to the clinic for family planning will receive our standard counseling on all forms of contraception, including short and long acting reversible contraception, and methods for permanent sterilization. Once the patient decides to have a sterilization procedure with the transcervical approach (EssureĀ® procedure), she will undergo the standard pre-procedure evaluation, which includes a complete history, appropriate physical examination including pelvic examination, and urine pregnancy test. Eligible women interested in sterilization will be advised of the study as an investigation evaluating nitrous oxide as an alternative to our current oral sedation pain management for in-office procedures. If they choose hysteroscopic sterilization, they will undergo informed consent for the EssureĀ® procedure. Providers will assess patient eligibility criteria for possible enrollment into the study. If patients are eligible and choose to participate in the research study, consent for participation will be obtained. At this time patients will be randomized to treatment group based on a predetermined randomization scheme. For this research study comparing the use of NO versus oral pain medications, the NO group will receive two placebo pills and the standard group will receive one 5/325 mg oral tablet of Vicodin and one 1 mg oral tablet of lorazepam 30 minutes prior to the procedure. The standard care group will receive oxygen (instead of NO) during the procedure. All participants will receive 30 mg of intramuscular ketorolac 30 minutes prior to the procedure. NO or oxygen will be administered via a scented nasal mask to blind patients to the intervention. NO can be titrated up to a concentration of 70% nitrous oxide and 30% oxygen based on desired analgesic effects per a predetermined sedation scale as part of the University of New Mexico Center for Reproductive Health (UNM CRH) nitrous administration protocol. All patients will be monitored with a pulse-oximeter. The patient will be fitted to their mask once the procedure is ready to begin. A single nurse will administer nitrous oxide and oxygen for all procedures. Every study patient will receive a minimum of 3 minutes of oxygen at the end of the procedure to minimize the side effects of NO. Additional oxygen will be administered as needed if a patient is experiencing residual effects of NO. Prior to the procedure and study medications, patients will complete patient information and demographics questionnaire and will receive instruction on the 0-100mm visual analogue scale (VAS) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). A baseline pain score will be recorded using the 0-100mm VAS with anchors 0 equals no pain and 100 equals worst pain imaginable, as well as baseline anxiety level using the STAI. At placement of the paracervical block and deployment of the second device coil, pain will be assessed again with the same 0-100mm VAS. At 3 to 5 minutes following completion of the procedure, maximal pain experienced during transcervical sterilization will be assessed by the patient. Prior to discharge from the clinic, the patient will rate her pain level using the same 0-100mm VAS, rate her level of anxiety with the procedure using the same STAI, and rate her overall satisfaction with the procedure measured using a 5-point Likert scale. Immediately after the procedure, the physician will complete a 0-100mm VAS on ease of insertion of the sterilization devices with anchors 0 equals no difficulty and 100 equals very difficult. The physician will also complete a 0-100mm VAS on hysteroscopic procedure difficulty with anchors 0 equals no difficulty and 100 equals very difficult. The standard transcervical sterilization procedure is not being evaluated in this study. After patients complete the procedure, they are contacted approximately 75 days from the procedure date to schedule a confirmatory test, hysterosalpingogram, which is required at 90 days to demonstrate successful sterilization.


Minimum age: 21 Years. Maximum age: N/A. Gender(s): Female.


Inclusion Criteria:

- Premenopausal women desiring permanent sterilization and have chosen to proceed with

a transcervical sterilization approach

- Speaks English or Spanish

- If relying on state or federal funding for sterilization, must have appropriate

federal consents signed 30 days prior to the sterilization procedure

- Agrees to either a hormonal endometrial preparation prior to the procedure or

schedule the procedure during the follicular phase (days 5 through 12) of their menstrual cycle

- Sexually active who agrees to contraception for 3 months post procedure, including

condoms, followed by a hysterosalpingogram (HSG) for confirmation of fallopian tubal occlusion. Exclusion Criteria:

- With contraindications for nitrous oxide including: respiratory infection, chronic

obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), intoxication or use of street drugs, inability to breathe through their nose.

- Have taken narcotic pain medications prior to coming to their appointment

- Unsure about desire to end fertility

- History of pelvic inflammatory disease in the past 3 months

- Pregnancy or suspicion of pregnancy

- Delivery or termination of a pregnancy within the last 6 weeks

- Known allergy to contrast

- Uterine anomalies

- Previous tubal surgery

- Cervical or endometrial cancer

- Allergy to Vicodin, lorazepam, or lidocaine.

Locations and Contacts

UNM Center for Reproductive Health, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106, United States
Additional Information

Starting date: February 2014
Last updated: June 15, 2015

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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