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Oseltamivir for Influenza Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Children Under One

Information source: University of Oxford
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Influenza

Intervention: Oseltamivir (Drug)

Phase: Phase 2/Phase 3

Status: Withdrawn

Sponsored by: University of Oxford

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, MD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital
Piyarat Suntarattiwong, MD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: Queen Sirikit National Institute of Health


Currently, there is no treatment for children less than one year of age with influenza related lower respiratory tract infection that is either considered standard or registered in any country. This dismal scenario exists even though influenza related LRTI is a significant illness causing morbidity and mortality, especially in children less than 6 months of age. Avian influenza has been reported rarely in children less than one. There are no data in Vietnam and very few data in Thailand on the burden of influenza in children less than one. This young age group suffers high mortality. Oseltamivir may be beneficial in such children. This is basis of this trial.

Clinical Details

Official title: SEA022 Oseltamivir Treatment in Children Under One Year of Age With Moderate or Severe Influenza Lower Respiratory Tract Infection - a Clinical and Pharmacokinetic Study.

Study design: Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Primary outcome:

Viral clearance

Pharmacokinetics of Oseltamivir

Secondary outcome:

Viral end points

Clinical Efficacy Endpoints

Safety Endpoints

Detailed description: There are limited data from Thailand on the aetiology of LRTI but no data on mortality of hospitalised children. Thai children < 1 year accounted for circa one third of LRTIs in children who were treated as out or inpatients in whom influenza was isolated in 6 (2. 7%) of 271 children and RSV in 44 (20%). At the Queen Sirikit hospital, Bangkok, influenza A and B and RSV accounted for approximately 11% (9/80), 2. 5% (2/80) and 6% (5/80) of children < 1 year, respectively. This study included children with underlying diseases like congenital heart disease and chronic lung disease. A small laboratory series of 110 children at Siriraj hospital with LRTIs infections (Pilaipan Puthavathana, personal communication) identified RSV A/B (17%), metapneumovirus (14%), parainfluenza 1 (12%) and adenovirus (12%), influenza B (6%), influenza A (4%), coronaviruses (3%), Parainfluenza 3 (2%) and 2 (0%). The number of drugs registered for treating influenza is limited to oral Oseltamivir, amantadine and rimantadine and inhaled zanamivir. As a result of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1, clinical guidelines have been updated to include children less than one years old . However, regulatory studies of oseltamivir excluded children under 1 year based on preclinical data in rats in which there were deaths in young rats (7 days old) but none in 14 days old rats given large doses of Oseltamivir. Higher concentrations of Oseltamivir were found in the brains of the younger rats which was thought to be due immaturity of the blood brain barrier. There is, however, some clinical experience with Oseltamivir in the under ones from Japan, Thailand, Germany , the USA , and additional experience with 2009 pH1N1 . The doses used were 2 mg/kg bid which is consistent with the dose recommended in the UK for children who weigh less than 15 kg (30 mg bid for 5 days). At the Queen Sirikit hospital, Oseltamivir has been given to a very small number of children < 1 year with severe influenza with good effect (T. Chotpitayasunondh, unpublished observations). This experience is similar to that of others i. e. good clinical outcomes and apparently good tolerability. An Oseltamivir pharmacokinetic study in children age 1-5 years showed that the dose of 2 mg/kg resulted in plasma-concentration time curves (AUC) similar to the AUC accepted in adult. However, the younger the child, the lower the AUC level; never the less, there are still insufficient pharmacokinetics data in children under one year . The clinical significance of reduced in vitro sensitivity is unclear owing to the paucity of human data but these mutations are likely to result in reduced antiviral efficacy of Oseltamivir and the adamantanes against H1N1. Furthermore, amantadine treatment of influenza frequently results in the rapid development of amantadine resistance in both H1N1 and H2N3 viruses, resulting in continued virus replication, thus, making this drug less than ideal for treating influenza. Currently, there is limited adamantane resistant H1N1 but widespread adamantane resistant in H3N2. H3N2 and influenza B remain sensitive to Oseltamivir. The adamantanes have no activity against influenza B. The emergence of resistance poses difficulties for the treatment of influenza in children less than one but oseltamivir represents at present the optimal choice for treating such children. Therefore, this protocol will assess the effect of oral Oseltamivir at doses recommended by the WHO to see if they are applicable to Thai children.


Minimum age: N/A. Maximum age: 12 Months. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria:

- Signed informed consent by a parent/legal guardian.

- Children less than 12 months of age when first seen with a LRTI of moderate or severe

severity and virologically proven influenza on a respiratory specimen.

- History of fever within 14 days prior to presentation (note: a fever at presentation

is not required) plus any two of the following:

- Cough

- Difficulty breathing / shortness of breath

- Increased respiratory rate for that age:

- > 60/min, age < 2 months

- > 50/min, age 2 - < 12 months,

- Intercostal recession

- Use of accessory muscles

- Nasal flare/grunting

- Crepitations with or without wheezing

- A consistent abnormal chest X ray e. g. new infiltrate, hyperinflation

Virological evidence of influenza on the following test:

- A positive commercial rapid test confirmed twice for influenza on respiratory

specimens from 2 different anatomical sites* * Any one of the following constitutes an acceptable respiratory specimen:


- NP swab

- throat swab

- endotracheal aspirate

- bronchoalveolar lavage sample

Exclusion Criteria: Exclusion criteria for children with non avian influenza These are:

- Known allergy to Oseltamivir

- Age ≥ 12 months on the day of hospital admission

- Illness duration > 14 days on the day of hospital admission

- Creatinine clearance < 10 mls/min/1. 73m2, including a requirement for dialysis or

haemofiltration Exclusion criteria for children with avian influenza These are:

- Known allergy to Oseltamivir

- Age ≥ 12 months on the day of hospital admission

- Informed consent not obtained

Patients with the following can be enrolled:

- underlying illnesses

- if prescribed Oseltamivir prior to presentation

- for avian influenza only: creatinine clearance < 10 mls/min/1. 73m2, including a

requirement for dialysis or haemofiltration

Locations and Contacts

Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok 10700, Thailand

Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

Additional Information

Starting date: December 2012
Last updated: July 26, 2013

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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