Gubbio Study Five-Year Follow-Up: Lithium Countertransport, Blood Pressure, and Other Variables
Information source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on December 31, 2007
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.
Condition(s) targeted: Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Hypertension; Coronary Disease
Sponsored by: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
To conduct a five-year follow-up of the population of Gubbio, a town in north central Italy,
in order to determine the relationship of baseline sodium-stimulated lithium countertransport
to subsequent change in blood pressure and incidence of hypertension.
Study design: Natural History
The field work of the baseline or prevalence phase of the Gubbio Study on the Epidemiology of
Hypertension was conducted between March 1983 and December 1985. The population sample
included all individuals age 5 and over residing in the town of Gubbio. The survey involved
a standardized comprehensive examination focussed on traits previously shown to be related to
hypertensive and/or other adult cardiovascular diseases, and on other traits of current
concern as possible risk factors. This latter category included measurement of red blood
cell electrolyte concentrations and fluxes, particularly sodium-stimulated lithium
countertransport. The study was planned, organized, and conducted by the Merck, Sharp and
Dohme Center for Epidemiologic Research in cooperation with Gubbio civic and medical leaders,
and with laboratory facilities in Gubbio, Naples, and Rome.
Follow-up examinations were conducted in the Centro di Medicina Preventiva in Gubbio which
was furnished and equipped by Merck, Sharp and Dohme of Rome, Italy. Additional work was
conducted at the Center for Epidemiologic Research of Merck, Sharp and Dohme in Rome, at the
University of Naples, and at Northwestern University in Chicago.
This prospective study re-examined the 5,500 residents of Gubbio who took part in the Gubbio
Population Study in 1983-1985. The data collected on follow-up focused mainly on factors
related to change in blood pressure and development of hypertension and included standard
physical examination, height, weight, girth, blood pressure, medical history and family
medical history, urine collection for study of electrolyte excretion, venipuncture, 12-lead
electrocardiogram, m-mode echocardiogram, pulse, skinfold measurement, carbon monoxide
content of exhaled breath, sociodemographic data on age, marital status, education, and
employment, and life style data on diet, alcohol intake, smoking, and physical
Measurements made at baseline permitted assessment of whether the hypothesized positive
relation of lithium countertransport to blood pressure was independent of such factors as
age, sex, body mass index, alcohol intake, plasma uric acid, glucose, family history, and
other variables generally associated with blood pressure. The relationship between 5-year
changes in these factors, change in lithium countertransport, and in blood pressure were also
examined. Several additional important unresolved questions on the epidemiology of blood
pressure and hypertension were explored: the role of macronutrients and micronutrients in
lithium countertransport and its change; red blood cell sodium and potassium concentrations
and their relation to blood pressure; possible differences in calcium metabolism between
hypertensives and normotensives; genetic polymorphisms related to lipid-lipoprotein
metabolism and possible influence on blood pressure; patterns of blood pressure change in the
elderly, the 639 and 341 persons age 65-74 and over 75, respectively, at baseline. Coronary
heart disease incidence was also studied.
Minimum age: N/A.
Maximum age: N/A.
No eligibility criteria
Locations and Contacts
Cirillo M, Laurenzi M. Erythrocyte and platelet volume in human hypertension. The Gubbio Study Collaborative Group. J Hypertens Suppl. 1989 Dec;7(6):S168-9.
Laurenzi M, Trevisan M. Sodium-lithium countertransport and blood pressure: the Gubbio Population Study. Hypertension. 1989 May;13(5):408-15.
Cirillo M, Laurenzi M, Stamler J. Factors related to blood pressure in a sample of Italian children age 5 to 14: the Gubbio Population Study. Semin Nephrol. 1989 Sep;9(3):267-71. No abstract available.
Laurenzi M, Stamler R, Trevisan M, Dyer A, Stamler J. Is Italy losing the "Mediterranean advantage?" Report on the Gubbio population study: cardiovascular risk factors at baseline. Gubbio Collaborative Study Group. Prev Med. 1989 Jan;18(1):35-44.
Laurenzi M, Mancini M, Menotti A, Stamler J, Stamler R, Trevisan M, Zanchetti A. Multiple risk factors in hypertension: results from the Gubbio study. J Hypertens Suppl. 1990 Mar;8(1):S7-12.
Cirillo M, Laurenzi M, Trevisan M, Stamler J. Hematocrit, blood pressure, and hypertension. The Gubbio Population Study. Hypertension. 1992 Sep;20(3):319-26.
Laurenzi M, Cirillo M, Trevisan M. The Gubbio data. Epidemiology and pathophysiology. Gubbio Study Research Group. Clin Exp Hypertens A. 1992;14(1-2):261-9.
Trevisan M, Laurenzi M. Correlates of sodium-lithium countertransport. Findings from the Gubbio Epidemiological Study. The Gubbio Collaborative Study Group. Circulation. 1991 Nov;84(5):2011-9.
Trevisan M, Krogh V, Cirillo M, Laurenzi M, Dyer A, Stamler J. Red blood cell sodium and potassium concentration and blood pressure. The Gubbio Population Study. Ann Epidemiol. 1995 Jan;5(1):44-51.
Strazzullo P, Cappuccio FP. Hypertension and kidney stones: hypotheses and implications. Semin Nephrol. 1995 Nov;15(6):519-25. Review.
Cirillo M, Laurenzi M, Panarelli W, Stamler J. Urinary sodium to potassium ratio and urinary stone disease. The Gubbio Population Study Research Group. Kidney Int. 1994 Oct;46(4):1133-9.
Schork NJ, Weder AB, Trevisan M, Laurenzi M. The contribution of pleiotropy to blood pressure and body-mass index variation: the Gubbio Study. Am J Hum Genet. 1994 Feb;54(2):361-73.
Zanchetti A. Concepts of multiple risk factors management: the Gubbio study. J Hypertens Suppl. 1990 Mar;8(1):S3-5.
Cirillo M, Laurenzi M, Panarelli W, Trevisan M, Stamler J. Prospective analysis of traits related to 6-year change in sodium-lithium countertransport. Gubbio Population Study Research Group. Hypertension. 1999 Mar;33(3):887-93.
Cirillo M, Senigalliesi L, Laurenzi M, Alfieri R, Stamler J, Stamler R, Panarelli W, De Santo NG. Microalbuminuria in nondiabetic adults: relation of blood pressure, body mass index, plasma cholesterol levels, and smoking: The Gubbio Population Study. Arch Intern Med. 1998 Sep 28;158(17):1933-9.
Laurenzi M, Cirillo M, Panarelli W, Trevisan M, Stamler R, Dyer AR, Stamler J. Baseline sodium-lithium countertransport and 6-year incidence of hypertension. The Gubbio Population Study. Circulation. 1997 Feb 4;95(3):581-7.
Cirillo M, Laurenzi M, Panarelli W, Trevisan M, Dyer AR, Stamler R, Stamler J. Sodium-lithium countertransport and blood pressure change over time: the Gubbio study. Hypertension. 1996 Jun;27(6):1305-11.
Starting date: August 1988
Ending date: July 1993
Last updated: June 23, 2005