Mechanisms of Glucose Lowering Effect of Colesvelam HCl
Information source: KineMed
Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on November 03, 2008
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.
Condition(s) targeted: Diabetes
Intervention: Colesevelam HCL (Drug); Placebo (Drug)
Sponsored by: KineMed
Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Carine Beysen, PhD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: KineMed
The mechanism by which colesevelam HCl lowers glucose is not known. Knowledge of the
potential mechanism of action is important for defining the role of the drug among oral
antidiabetic agents available for use in subjects with diabetes. The objective of this study
is to provide insight into the mechanisms of action of colesevelam HCl in T2DM. The
mechanisms of interest include hepatic insulin sensitivity, rate of appearance of exogenous
glucose and changes in incretin hormone concentrations.
Official title: Effects of Colesevelam HCl on Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose Absorption and Lipid Synthesis in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Study design: Basic Science, Randomized, Double Blind (Subject, Investigator), Placebo Control, Parallel Assignment, Pharmacokinetics Study
Primary outcome: To evaluate the effects of 12 weeks of treatment with colesevelam HCl on hepatic glucose production, hepatic gluconeogenesis, hepatic glycogenolysis and glucose absorption
Secondary outcome: To evaluate the effects of 12 weeks of treatment with colesevelam HCl on de novo lipogenesis (DNL), de novo cholesterol synthesis (DNC), de novo bile acid synthesis, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon
Colesevelam HCl (marketed in the U. S. as WelChol®) is a non-absorbed polymer that binds bile
acids in the intestine, impeding their reabsorption, and is indicated to lower low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. As the bile acid pool
becomes depleted, the hepatic enzyme cholesterol 7-(alpha)-hydroxylase is upregulated,
increasing the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. This causes an increased demand for
cholesterol in the liver, resulting in the dual effect of increasing transcription and
activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme, hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA)
reductase, and increasing the number of hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors.
These compensatory effects increase the clearance of LDL-C from the blood, decreasing serum
LDL C levels (1; 2).
Recently, it has been shown that colesevelam HCl also improves glycemic control in subjects
with T2DM who are not controlled adequately on metformin, sulfonylurea or a combination of
the two drugs (3). The mechanism of action for glucose lowering is not known. Improved
glycemic control with colesevelam HCl treatment could be due to any of several mechanisms.
Colesevelam HCl could reduce hepatic insulin resistance and lead to a decrease in hepatic
glucose production (HGP). The observation by Schwartz et al (4) of significantly reduced
fasting plasma glucose concentrations in colesevelam-treated T2DM patients suggests such a
reduction in HGP, as fasting hyperglycemia is a direct function of HGP. Colesevelam HCl
could also decrease post-prandial glucose absorption. Changes in glucose absorption with
other bile acid sequestrants (BAS) (5) and bile acids (6) have been reported.
With regard to molecular mediators of the colesevelam effect on glucose metabolism, there is
considerable evidence emerging about the role of bile acids and nuclear transcription
factors, such as the farnesyl X receptor (FXR), in the regulation of glucose and lipid
metabolism (7) (8) (9-15). Changes in cellular lipids or nuclear hormone receptors might
directly alter HGP although mechanisms leading to changes in hepatic lipid and glucose
metabolism by colesevelam HCl have not previously been investigated.
Significant changes in cholesterol and bile acid synthesis rates are expected with
colesevelam treatment. BAS treatment can alter the transhepatic flux and compositional
profile of the circulating bile acid pool (16), and thus its hydrophobicity, and this may
effect the activation of nuclear receptors, including FXR (17; 18). Determination of the
effect of colesevelam treatment on bile acid synthesis may provide evidence for its metabolic
effects. The effects on hepatic fatty acid synthesis (de novo lipogenesis or DNL) have not
been investigated and may provide further evidence for a metabolic effect of colesevelam.
Specific hypotheses about its mode of action will be tested, focusing on hepatic glucose
metabolism and intestinal glucose absorption.
Minimum age: 30 Years.
Maximum age: 70 Years.
Subjects meeting the following criteria at the Screening Visit will be eligible to
participate in the trial:
- Have given written informed consent
- Male or Female
1. Females of childbearing potential who are on approved birth control method:
oral, injectable, or implantable hormonal contraceptives; intrauterine device;
diaphragm plus spermicide or female condom plus spermicide
2. Females of non-childbearing potential: hysterectomy, tubal ligation 6 months
prior screening or post-menopausal for at least 1 year
- Previously diagnosed or newly diagnosed with T2DM
- Age 30 to 70 years, inclusive
- BMI â‰¥ 18. 5 kg/m2 and â‰¤ 40 kg/m2
- HbA1C 7-10%, inclusive (exceptions between 6. 7-7% may be enrolled with prior approval
- Fasting plasma glucose < 300 mg/dL
- Diet controlled or on stable dose of a sulfonylurea and/or meglitinides and/or
metformin for â‰¥ 90 days before screening
- No history of liver, biliary or intestinal disease (AST/ALT < 2X upper limit of normal
- Normal TSH
- Agrees to maintain their regular diet and exercise routine
- Agrees to refrain from consumption of alcohol 48 hours prior to start of infusions
(week 0 and week 12)
Subjects are excluded from participation in the study if any of the following criteria
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus or history of diabetic ketoacidosis
- Treatment with lipid lowering medication other than statins
- Treatment with statins that have not been stable for 3 months before screening
- Treatment with colesevelam HCl, cholestyramine or colestipol for hyperlipidemia within
the last 3 months of screening
- Treatment with a thiazolidinedione (TZD) at any time
- Treatment with acarbose at any time
- Treatment with insulin in the past 6 months
- Treatment with antibiotics within the last 3 months
- Treatment with any medication affecting liver or intestinal function within the last 3
- Has had unstable weight within the last 3 months of screening (Â± 5 kg)
- History of an allergic or toxic reaction to colesevelam HCl
- History of dysphagia, swallowing disorders, or intestinal motility disorder
- Serum triglycerides â‰¥ 350 mg/dL at screening visit (exceptions up to 500 mg/dl may be
enrolled with prior approval of SPONSOR)
- Serum LDL-C <60 mg/dL at screening visit
- Any condition or therapy which, in the opinion of the investigator, poses a risk to
the subject or makes participation not in the subject's best interest
- Use of any investigational drug within 3 months of screening
- Chronic treatment with oral corticosteroids at any time or acute treatment within the
last 3 months
- History of drug or alcohol abuse, is currently a user (including "recreational use")
of any illicit drugs, or has a positive urine drug screen at screening
- Donated a unit of blood within 30 days before screening
Locations and Contacts
Diablo Clinical Research, Inc, Walnut Creek, California 94598, United States; Recruiting
Mark P Christiansen, MD, Phone: 925-930-7267
Mark P Christiansen, MD, Principal Investigator
Clinical Pharmacology of Miami, Inc, Miami, Florida 33014, United States; Recruiting
Stacey Dilzer, Phone: 305-817-2900, Email: email@example.com
Kenneth C Lasseter, MD, Principal Investigator
Diabetes & Glandular Disease Research Associates, San Antonio, Texas 78229, United States; Recruiting
Sherwyn L Schwartz, MD, Phone: 210-614-8612
Sherwyn Schwartz, MD, Principal Investigator
Diabetes & Glandular Disease Research Associates, Inc
Diablo Clinical Research, Inc.
Grundy SM, Ahrens EH Jr, Salen G. Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in man: comparative effects of cholestyramine and ileal exclusion on cholesterol metabolism. J Lab Clin Med. 1971 Jul;78(1):94-121. No abstract available.
Shepherd J, Packard CJ, Bicker S, Lawrie TD, Morgan HG. Cholestyramine promotes receptor-mediated low-density-lipoprotein catabolism. N Engl J Med. 1980 May 29;302(22):1219-22.
Zieve FJ, Kalin MF, Schwartz SL, Jones MR, Bailey WL. Results of the glucose-lowering effect of WelChol study (GLOWS): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study evaluating the effect of colesevelam hydrochloride on glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Clin Ther. 2007 Jan;29(1):74-83.
Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Leeds AR, Gassull MA, Haisman P, Dilawari J, Goff DV, Metz GL, Alberti KG. Dietary fibres, fibre analogues, and glucose tolerance: importance of viscosity. Br Med J. 1978 May 27;1(6124):1392-4.
Starting date: November 2007
Ending date: November 2008
Last updated: June 24, 2008