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Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD)

Information source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Atherosclerosis; Cardiovascular Diseases; Hypercholesterolemia; Hypertension; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Diabetes Mellitus; Coronary Disease

Intervention: Anti-hyperglycemic Agents (Drug); Anti-hypertensive Agents (Drug); Blinded fenofibrate or placebo plus simvastatin (Drug)

Phase: Phase 3

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Denise Simons-Morton, MD, PhD, Study Director, Affiliation: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
William Friedewald, MD, Study Chair, Affiliation: Columbia University, New York, NY
Robert Byington, PhD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC


The purpose of this study is to prevent major cardiovascular events (heart attack, stroke, or cardiovascular death) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus using intensive glycemic control, intensive blood pressure control, and multiple lipid management.

Clinical Details

Official title: Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD)

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Prevention

Primary outcome:

First Occurrence of a Major Cardiovascular Event (MCE); Specifically Nonfatal Heart Attack, Nonfatal Stroke, or Cardiovascular Death (Measured Throughout the Study) in the Glycemia Trial.

First Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Event (MCE) in the Blood Pressure Trial.

First Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Event (MCE) in the Lipid Trial.

Secondary outcome:

Death From Any Cause in the Glycemia Trial.

Stroke in the Blood Pressure Trial.

First Occurrence of MCE or Revascularization or Hospitalization for Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) in Lipid Trial.

Detailed description: BACKGROUND: Currently, about 17 million Americans have been diagnosed with diabetes and more than 90 percent of them have type 2 diabetes. The number of people with this form of diabetes, formerly known as adult onset or non-insulin dependent diabetes, is growing rapidly. By 2050, the number of Americans with diagnosed diabetes is projected to increase by 165 percent to 29 million, of whom 27 million will have the type 2 form. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in people with type 2 diabetes; these individuals die of CVD at rates two to four times higher than those who do not have diabetes. They also experience more nonfatal heart attacks and strokes. Type 2 diabetes is associated with older age and is more common in those who are overweight or obese and have a family history of diabetes. Women with a history of diabetes during pregnancy, adults with impaired glucose tolerance, people with a sedentary lifestyle, and members of a minority race/ethnicity are also at a greater risk for developing type 2 diabetes. African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, and some Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are at particularly high risk for type 2 diabetes. DESIGN NARRATIVE:

The three strategies tested in ACCORD included the following: (1) Blood sugar - ACCORD was

designed to determine whether lowering blood glucose to a level closer to normal than called for in current guidelines reduces CVD risk. The study estimated effects on CVD of that

level compared with a level that is usually targeted. (2) Blood pressure - many people with

type 2 diabetes have high blood pressure. The blood pressure part of the trial was designed to determine the effects of lowering blood pressure in the context of good blood sugar control, that is to determine whether lowering blood pressure to normal (systolic pressure less than 120 mm Hg) will better reduce CVD risk, as compared to a usually-targeted level in current clinical practice (i. e., below the definition of hypertension; systolic pressure

less than 140 mm Hg). (3) Blood Fats - Many people with diabetes have high levels of LDL

("bad") cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as low levels of HDL ("good") cholesterol. ACCORD participants who are selected for this part of the trial were assigned to an intervention to improve blood fat levels. This part of the study looked at the effects of lowering LDL cholesterol and blood triglycerides and increasing HDL cholesterol compared to an intervention that only lowers LDL cholesterol, all in the context of good blood sugar control. A drug from a class of drugs called "fibrates" was used to lower triglycerides and increase HDL cholesterol, whereas a drug from the class of drugs called "statins" was used to lower LDL cholesterol. All ACCORD participants received blood sugar treatment from the study. Based on the second trial (Blood Pressure or Lipid) they were assigned to, participants also received their high blood pressure or cholesterol care from the study. Study participants received all medication and treatments related to the study free of charge. Individuals who selected for and consented to participate in the ACCORD study continued to see their personal physician for all other health care. In summary, the ACCORD Study was a double 2x2 factorial design with factors consisting of: intensive versus standard glycemic control, intensive versus standard blood pressure control, and blinded fenofibrate or placebo in combination with simvastatin to maintain desirable LDL-C levels. All 10,251 participants were randomized to the glycemic interventions; a subgroup of 4,733 participants who met the blood pressure entry criteria were randomized to the blood pressure interventions in one 2x2 trial; and a distinct subgroup of 5,518 participants who met the lipid entry criteria were randomized to the lipid interventions in the second 2x2 trial. All participants had established type 2 diabetes and were recruited from 77 clinical centers in the United States (64 sites) and Canada (13 sites). On February 6, 2008, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) announced that participants in the intensive glycemia treatment would be transitioned to the ACCORD standard glycemic treatment approach due to higher mortality in the intensive treatment group terminating the experimental arm of the Glycemia Trial early. The Blood Pressure and Lipid trials continued as designed to their planned termination in 2009.


Minimum age: 40 Years. Maximum age: 79 Years. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria:

- Diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, as determined by the new American Diabetes

Association guidelines, which include a fasting plasma glucose level greater than 126 mg/dl (7. 0 mmol/l), or a 2-hour postload value in the oral glucose tolerance test of greater than 200 mg/dl, with confirmation by a retest

- For participants aged 40 years or older, history of CVD (heart attack, stroke,

history of coronary revascularization, history of peripheral or carotid revascularization, or demonstrated angina)

- For participants aged 55 years or older, a history of CVD is not required, but

participant must be considered to be at high risk for experiencing a CVD event due to existing CVD, subclinical disease, or 2+ CVD risk factors

- HbA1c 7. 5%-9% (if on more drugs) or 7. 5%-11% (if on fewer drugs)

Locations and Contacts

Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55404, United States

Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, United States

Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27106, United States

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, United States

McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Veterans Affairs, Memphis, Tennessee 38104, United States

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, United States

Additional Information

Click here for the ACCORD trial web site

Related publications:

Cushman WC, Grimm RH Jr, Cutler JA, Evans GW, Capes S, Corson MA, Sadler LS, Alderman MH, Peterson K, Bertoni A, Basile JN; ACCORD Study Group. Rationale and design for the blood pressure intervention of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Jun 18;99(12A):44i-55i. Epub 2007 Apr 16.

Williamson JD, Miller ME, Bryan RN, Lazar RM, Coker LH, Johnson J, Cukierman T, Horowitz KR, Murray A, Launer LJ; ACCORD Study Group. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Memory in Diabetes Study (ACCORD-MIND): rationale, design, and methods. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Jun 18;99(12A):112i-122i. Epub 2007 Apr 12.

Sullivan MD, Anderson RT, Aron D, Atkinson HH, Bastien A, Chen GJ, Feeney P, Gafni A, Hwang W, Katz LA, Narayan KM, Nwachuku C, O'Connor PJ, Zhang P; ACCORD Study Group. Health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness components of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial: rationale and design. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Jun 18;99(12A):90i-102i. Epub 2007 Apr 13.

Bonds DE, Kurashige EM, Bergenstal R, Brillon D, Domanski M, Felicetta JV, Fonseca VA, Hall K, Hramiak I, Miller ME, Osei K, Simons-Morton DG; ACCORD Study Group. Severe hypoglycemia monitoring and risk management procedures in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Jun 18;99(12A):80i-89i. Epub 2007 Apr 17.

Kingry C, Bastien A, Booth G, Geraci TS, Kirpach BR, Lovato LC, Margolis KL, Rosenberg Y, Sperl-Hillen JM, Vargo L, Williamson JD, Probstfield JL; ACCORD Study Group. Recruitment strategies in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Jun 18;99(12A):68i-79i. Epub 2007 Apr 12.

Ginsberg HN, Bonds DE, Lovato LC, Crouse JR, Elam MB, Linz PE, O'connor PJ, Leiter LA, Weiss D, Lipkin E, Fleg JL; ACCORD Study Group. Evolution of the lipid trial protocol of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Jun 18;99(12A):56i-67i. Epub 2007 Apr 12.

Goff DC Jr, Gerstein HC, Ginsberg HN, Cushman WC, Margolis KL, Byington RP, Buse JB, Genuth S, Probstfield JL, Simons-Morton DG; ACCORD Study Group. Prevention of cardiovascular disease in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus: current knowledge and rationale for the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Jun 18;99(12A):4i-20i. Epub 2007 Apr 12. Review.

Gerstein HC, Riddle MC, Kendall DM, Cohen RM, Goland R, Feinglos MN, Kirk JK, Hamilton BP, Ismail-Beigi F, Feeney P; ACCORD Study Group. Glycemia treatment strategies in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Jun 18;99(12A):34i-43i. Epub 2007 Apr 19.

ACCORD Study Group, Buse JB, Bigger JT, Byington RP, Cooper LS, Cushman WC, Friedewald WT, Genuth S, Gerstein HC, Ginsberg HN, Goff DC Jr, Grimm RH Jr, Margolis KL, Probstfield JL, Simons-Morton DG, Sullivan MD. Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial: design and methods. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Jun 18;99(12A):21i-33i. Epub 2007 Apr 16.

Chew EY, Ambrosius WT, Howard LT, Greven CM, Johnson S, Danis RP, Davis MD, Genuth S, Domanski M; ACCORD Study Group. Rationale, design, and methods of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Eye Study (ACCORD-EYE). Am J Cardiol. 2007 Jun 18;99(12A):103i-111i. Epub 2007 Apr 13.

Starting date: September 1999
Last updated: November 12, 2014

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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