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Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses

Information source: University of Florida
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Hypertension

Intervention: Hydrochlorothiazide (Drug); Atenolol (Drug)

Phase: Phase 4

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: University of Florida

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Julie A Johnson, PharmD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: University of Florida


There are many medications available for the treatment of high blood pressure (hypertension), but finding the right one for a specific patient can be challenging. In fact, it is estimated that only 34% of people with hypertension have their blood pressure under control. The hypothesis is that genetic differences between individuals influence their response to antihypertensive medications. This study is aimed at determining the genetic factors that may influence a person's response to either a beta-blocker or a thiazide diuretic. The hope is that through this research, we may someday be able to use an individual's genetic information to guide the selection of their blood pressure medicine, leading to better control of blood pressure, and less need for the current trial and error process.

Clinical Details

Official title: Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR)

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Primary outcome: Blood Pressure Response (Delta BP (After 18 Weeks of Medication - Baseline)).

Secondary outcome: Adverse Metabolic Responses

Detailed description: The proposed work should help move toward the long-term goal of selection of antihypertensive drug therapy based on a patient's genetic make-up. Hypertension (HTN) is the most common chronic disease for which drugs are prescribed, and the most prevalent risk factor for heart attack, stroke, renal failure and heart failure. Responses to antihypertensive drug therapy exhibit considerable interpatient variability, contributing to poor rates of HTN control (currently 34% in the US), and frequent nonadherence and dropout from therapy. We propose to identify genetic predictors of the antihypertensive and adverse metabolic responses to two preferred and pharmacodynamically contrasting drugs, a beta-blocker (atenolol) and a thiazide diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide) given initially as monotherapy, and subsequently in combination, to 800 individuals with uncomplicated hypertension. High quality phenotype data, including both home and ambulatory measures of blood pressure (BP) response, and lipid and insulin sensitivity measures of adverse metabolic responses will be related to genetic variation through two approaches. First, testing 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each of 70 candidate genes, we will examine the influence of these genes' variation on responses to beta-blockers and diuretics (Specific Aim 1). This will include assessment of genetic associations with: antihypertensive responses to monotherapy (Aim 1a), addition of a second drug to monotherapy (Aim 1b), and combination therapy (Aim 1c); and adverse metabolic responses to mono and combination therapy (Aim 1d). This candidate gene approach will be supplemented by discovery of novel genes involved in variable BP and metabolic responses to beta-blockers and diuretics through testing of 20,000 putative functional SNPs that span the human genome (Specific Aim 2). As in Aim 1, Aim 2 will include testing for associations with antihypertensive and adverse metabolic responses to monotherapy and combination therapy. The proposed research will substantially increase our understanding of the pharmacogenetics of mono- and combination antihypertensive drug therapy. It will also lead to creation of data sets and samples that can be used by others in the field, through deposit of data to PharmGKB, and creation of immortalized cell lines from all study participants to share data and biological samples with other researchers. The proposed research is significant because genetically-targeted antihypertensive therapy could lead to dramatically higher response rates and fewer adverse effects than the usual trial-and-error approach. This would likely lead to higher rates of HTN control, less need for polypharmacy, reduced health care costs, and improved outcomes.


Minimum age: 17 Years. Maximum age: 65 Years. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria: An average seated home diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > 85 mmHg and home systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 180 mmHg. Subjects must also have an average seated (> 5 minutes) clinic DBP between 90 mmHg and 110 mmHg and SBP < 180 mmHg Exclusion Criteria: secondary forms of HTN, patients currently treated with three or more antihypertensive drugs, isolated systolic HTN, other diseases requiring treatment with BP lowering medications, heart rate < 55 beats/min, known cardiovascular disease (including history of angina pectoris, heart failure, presence of a cardiac pacemaker, history of myocardial infarction or revascularization procedure, or cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and TIA), diabetes mellitus (Type 1 or 2), renal insufficiency (serum creatinine > 1. 5 in men or 1. 4 in women), primary renal disease, pregnancy or lactation, liver enzymes > 2. 5 upper limits of normal, current treatment with NSAIDS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitors, oral contraceptives or estrogen.

Locations and Contacts

University of Florida Department of Community Health and Family Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610, United States

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, United States

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, United States

Additional Information

PEAR website

Starting date: October 2005
Last updated: May 20, 2015

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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