Acetylcysteine, Theophylline, and a Combination of Both in the Prophylaxis of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy
Information source: Technische Universität München
Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on June 20, 2008
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.
Condition(s) targeted: Contrast Induced Nephropathy; Kidney Diseases; Renal Failure; Adverse Effects
Intervention: Acetylcysteine (Drug); Theophylline (Drug); Placebo (Drug)
Phase: Phase 4
Sponsored by: Technische Universität München
Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Wolfgang Huber, MD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: Technische UniversitÃ¤t MÃ¼nchen
Several studies demonstrated a significant reduction of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN;
definition: increase in serum creatinine of >=0. 5mg/dl and/or >=25% increase within 48h after
contrast-medium) by acetylcysteine (A) or theophylline (T). However, the results are
contradictory. Therefore, it was the aim of our double-blind study to compare the effects of
A, T, a combination of A and T (A+T), and placebo (P).
Official title: Acetylcysteine, Theophylline, and a Combination of Both in the Prophylaxis of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: A Placebo Controlled Randomized Study
Study design: Prevention, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Control, Parallel Assignment, Efficacy Study
Primary outcome: The incidence of contrast induced nephropathy, defined as an increase of serum creatinine of at least 0.5 mg/d and/or 25% within 48 hours of contrast-medium application (comparison of treatment groups to placebo)
Secondary outcome: Change in serum creatinine 48h after contrast medium compared to pre-contrast serum creatinine.
Multiple regression analysis of risk-factors of CIN with âY=Maximum increase of serum creatinine compared to baseline within 48hâ
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute
renal failure (ARF). Accounting for 12% of ARF cases, CIN is defined as an increase of serum
creatinine of at least 0. 5 mg/d (“Barrett´s definition”) and/or 25% within 48 hours of
contrast-medium application. CIN is associated with prolonged hospitalisation and increased
mortality. CIN frequency depends on several risk-factors including pre-existing renal
dysfunction, high amounts of contrast-medium, diabetes, and concurrent use of nephrotoxic
drugs. CIN incidence is low in the absence of risk-factors; however, in high-risk patients,
CIN occurs in more than 50% of patients.
A variety of prophylactic approaches have been investigated. Despite nephro-protective
effects of hydration with saline or with sodium bicarbonate, other trials reported
CIN-incidences between 20 and 50% despite hydration. Several studies and two recent
meta-analyses demonstrated a significant reduction of renal impairment after contrast-medium
using medical prophylaxis with the adenosine antagonist theophylline. However, a recent trial
failed to prove prophylactic effects of theophylline.
The antioxidant acetylcysteine (ACC) was effective in patients with impaired renal function
in at least six studies, but it was not preventive in at least 21 trials and two recent
meta-analyses. A recent study comparing the prophylactic efficacy of theophylline and
acetylcysteine demonstrated superior prophylactic effects of theophylline. Nevertheless, this
study did not include a placebo group, was not restricted to patients with impaired renal
function and exclusively enrolled ICU-patients.
Therefore, we performed a double-blinded study to compare the effects of acetylcysteine,
theophylline, a combination of both, and placebo in patients with impaired renal function
(serum creatinine >=1. 3mg/dl) parenterally receiving >=100ml of contrast-medium.
Minimum age: 18 Years.
Maximum age: N/A.
- Impaired renal function (serum creatinine >=1. 3mg/dl)
- >=100ml of contrast-medium
- Age >= 18years
- Informed consent
- Previous dialysis and/or haemofiltration
- Pre-treatment with acetylcysteine and/or theophylline within the last 2 days,
- Contraindications to theophylline (untreated high grade arrhythmia or a history of
seizures) or acetylcysteine (known allergy).
Locations and Contacts
Klinikum Rechts der Isar; Technical University of Munich, Munich D-81675, Germany
Starting date: February 2002
Ending date: October 2004
Last updated: June 26, 2007