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Availability of Vitamin D in Orange Juice

Information source: Boston Medical Center
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Vitamin D Deficiency

Intervention: Vitamin D2 in orange juice (Dietary Supplement); Vitamin D3 in orange juice (Dietary Supplement); Vitamin D2 (Dietary Supplement); Vitamin D3 (Dietary Supplement); Placebo (Other)

Phase: Phase 1

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: Boston Medical Center

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Michael F Holick, PhD, MD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: Boston University
Rachael M Biancuzzo, BS, MA, Study Director, Affiliation: Boston University


The purpose of this study was to determine whether vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 in orange juice are effective at raising vitamin D levels in the blood and if vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 in orange juice raised blood levels of 25(OH)D as well as vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 supplements.

Clinical Details

Official title: Bioavailability of Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3 in Supplements Compared to Vitamin D3 and Vitamin D2 in Fortified Orange Juice

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Bio-availability Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)

Primary outcome: Measurement of 25(OH)D levels after ingestion of 1,000 IU of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 in a capsule

Secondary outcome: Measurement 25(OH)D levels after taking vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 in orange juice

Detailed description: This study should provide valuable information about the bioavailability of both vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 formulated in orange juice compared to vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 formulated in a pill and taken with water. It is anticipated based on our previous observation that the vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 in orange juice will be at least 50% more effective in raising the blood levels of 25(OH)D than when taken in pill form. This study will evaluate the bioavailability and metabolism of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 in combination in tablet form. The results should provide important information as to whether a physiologic dose of vitamin D2 has a negative effect on circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [25(OH)D2 ] and on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. Results from this study have important implications for expanding the adequate intake (AI) recommendations for vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 for adults.


Minimum age: 18 Years. Maximum age: N/A. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria:

- Male and female adults of all races ages 18 years and older

Exclusion Criteria:

- Pregnant and lactating women

- History of chronic severe liver (as defined by liver function test greater than 2

times upper limit of normal)or kidney disease as defined by a serum creatinine >2. 5.

- History of taking a daily supplement that contains 400 or more IU vitamin D2 or

vitamin D3 within the past month or taking a pharmacologic amount of vitamin D2 or one of the active vitamin D analogs including Zemplar (Paricalcitol), Dovonex (calcipotriol), Hectorol (vitamin D pro hormone)

- Subjects who are taking orally Dilantin or glucocorticoids.

- Exposure to a tanning bed or tanning on a beach for more than eight hours within the

past month.

- Subjects who drink more than 2 glasses (16 oz) cups of milk a day.

- Known history of elevated calcium. (> 10. 5 mg% (mg/dl))

- History of intestinal malabsorption (i. e. Cystic Fibrosis, Fat malabsorption

Syndrome, Crohn's Disease)

- Allergies to orange juice

- Any medical conditions in which it is not advisable to receive one 8 oz. glass of

orange juice per day.

- Currently taking, or having taken less than one month prior to start of study, a

prescription vitamin D

- Unwilling to consent to this trial

Locations and Contacts

Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, United States
Additional Information

Related publications:

Holick MF. High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and implications for health. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006 Mar;81(3):353-73. Review.

Holick MF. Sunlight "D"ilemma: risk of skin cancer or bone disease and muscle weakness. Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):4-6.

Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1997.

Webb AR, Kline L, Holick MF. Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Aug;67(2):373-8.

Malabanan A, Veronikis IE, Holick MF. Redefining vitamin D insufficiency. Lancet. 1998 Mar 14;351(9105):805-6.

Tangpricha V, Koutkia P, Rieke SM, Chen TC, Perez AA, Holick MF. Fortification of orange juice with vitamin D: a novel approach for enhancing vitamin D nutritional health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;77(6):1478-83.

Holick MF, Siris ES, Binkley N, Beard MK, Khan A, Katzer JT, Petruschke RA, Chen E, de Papp AE. Prevalence of Vitamin D inadequacy among postmenopausal North American women receiving osteoporosis therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jun;90(6):3215-24. Epub 2005 Mar 29.

Heaney RP, Davies KM, Chen TC, Holick MF, Barger-Lux MJ. Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jan;77(1):204-10. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;78(5):1047.

Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP. Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91.

Trang HM, Cole DE, Rubin LA, Pierratos A, Siu S, Vieth R. Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Oct;68(4):854-8.

Starting date: December 2006
Last updated: January 25, 2013

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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