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Experimental Human Malaria Infection After Immunization With Plasmodium Falciparum Sporozoites Under Chloroquine Prophylaxis

Information source: Radboud University
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria

Intervention: Chloroquine prophylaxis (Drug); Immunization (Biological); Plasmodium falciparum Bloodstage challenge (Biological); Plasmodium falciparum mosquito challenge (Biological); Malarone treatment (Drug)

Phase: N/A

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: Radboud University

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Robert W Sauerwein, MD, PhD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: Radboud University


Malaria is one of the major infectious diseases in the world with a tremendous impact on the quality of life significantly contributing to the ongoing poverty in endemic countries. It causes almost one million deaths per year, the majority of which are children under the age of five. The malaria parasite enters the human body through the skin, by the bite of an infected mosquito. Subsequently, it invades the liver and develops and multiplies inside the hepatocytes. After a week, the hepatocytes burst open and the parasites are released in the blood stream, causing the clinical phase of the disease. As a unique opportunity to study malaria immunology and efficacy of immunisation strategies, a protocol has been developed in the past to conduct experimental human malaria infections (EHMIs). EHMIs generally involve small groups of malaria-naïve volunteers infected via the bites of P. falciparum infected laboratory-reared Anopheline mosquitoes. Although potentially serious or even lethal, Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria can be radically cured at the earliest stages of blood infection where risks of complications are virtually absent. The investigators have shown previously, that healthy human volunteers can be protected from a malaria mosquito challenge by immunization with mosquito-bites under chloroquine prophylaxis (CPS immunization). However, it is unknown whether this protection is based on immunity directed towards the liver- or the blood stage of the disease. For future development of vaccines and understanding of protective immunity to malaria, it is important to investigate at which level protective immunity is generated by CPS immunization. Therefore, we aim to investigate whether CPS immunization confers protection to a blood-stage challenge.

Clinical Details

Official title: Experimental Human Malaria Infection After Immunization With Plasmodium Falciparum Sporozoites Under Chloroquine Prophylaxis

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Basic Science

Primary outcome:

Duration of prepatent period as measured by microscopy

Parasitemia and kinetics of parasitemia as measured by PCR

Frequency of signs or symptoms in study groups

Secondary outcome:

Antibody production in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4

Cellular immune response in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4

Cytokine profile in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4


Minimum age: 18 Years. Maximum age: 35 Years. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria: 1. Age > 18 and < 35 years healthy volunteers (males or females) 2. Good health based on history and clinical examination 3. Negative pregnancy test 4. Use of adequate contraception for females 5. All volunteers must sign the informed consent form demonstrating their understanding of the meaning and procedures of the study 6. Volunteer agrees to inform the general practitioner and agrees to sign a request to release medical information concerning contra-indications for participation in the study 7. Willingness to undergo a Pf mosquito or blood stage challenge 8. For volunteers not living in Nijmegen: agreement to stay in a hotel room close to the trial center during a part of the study (for groups 1 and 3 from challenge day till 3 days after treatment, for groups 2 and 4 from 5 days after challenge till 3 days after treatment) 9. Reachable (24/7) by mobile phone during the whole study period 10. Living with a third party that could contact the clinicians in case of alteration of consciousness or agreement to stay in a hotel room close to the trial center during a part of the study (for groups 1 and 3 from challenge day till 3 days after treatment, for groups 2 and 4 from 5 days after challenge till 3 days after treatment) 11. Available to attend all study visits 12. Agreement to refrain from blood donation to Sanquin or for other purposes, during the study period until 393 13. Willingness to undergo HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C tests 14. Negative urine toxicology screening test at screening visit and day before challenge 15. Willingness to take a prophylactic regime of chloroquine and curative regimen of Malarone® Exclusion Criteria: 1. History of malaria 2. Plans to travel to malaria endemic areas during the study period 3. Plans to travel outside of the Netherlands during the challenge period 4. Previous participation in any malaria vaccine study and/or positive serology for Pf 5. Symptoms, physical signs and laboratory values suggestive of systemic disorders including renal, hepatic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, skin, immunodeficiency, psychiatric, and other conditions which could interfere with the interpretation of the study results or compromise the health of the volunteers 6. History of diabetes mellitus or cancer (except basal cell carcinoma of the skin) 7. History of arrhythmias or prolonged QT-interval 8. Positive family history in 1st and 2nd degree relatives for cardiac disease < 50 years old 9. An estimated, ten year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease of ≥5%, as estimated by the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) system 10. Clinically significant abnormalities in electrocardiogram (ECG) at screening 11. Body Mass Index (BMI) below 18 or above 30 kg/m2 12. Any clinically significant deviation from the normal range in biochemistry or hematology blood tests or in urine analysis 13. Positive HIV, HBV or HCV tests 14. Participation in any other clinical study within 30 days prior to the onset of the study 15. Enrollment in any other clinical study during the study period 16. Pregnant or lactating women 17. Volunteers unable to give written informed consent 18. Volunteers unable to be closely followed for social, geographic or psychological reasons 19. Previous history of drug or alcohol abuse interfering with normal social function during a period of one year prior to enrolment in the study 20. A history of psychiatric disease 21. Known hypersensitivity to anti-malaria drugs 22. The use of chronic immunosuppressive drugs, antibiotics, or other immune modifying drugs within three months of study onset (inhaled and topical corticosteroids are allowed) and during the study period 23. Contra-indications to Malarone® or chloroquine including treatment taken by the volunteer that interferes with Malarone® or chloroquine 24. Any confirmed or suspected immunosuppressive or immunodeficient condition, including asplenia 25. Co-workers of the departments of Medical Microbiology or Internal Medicine of the RUNMC 26. A history of sickle cell anemia, sickle cell trait, thalassemia, thalassemia trait or G6PD deficiency

Locations and Contacts

Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen 6500 HB, Netherlands
Additional Information

Related publications:

Roestenberg M, McCall M, Hopman J, Wiersma J, Luty AJ, van Gemert GJ, van de Vegte-Bolmer M, van Schaijk B, Teelen K, Arens T, Spaarman L, de Mast Q, Roeffen W, Snounou G, Rénia L, van der Ven A, Hermsen CC, Sauerwein R. Protection against a malaria challenge by sporozoite inoculation. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul 30;361(5):468-77. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0805832.

Starting date: April 2011
Last updated: January 20, 2014

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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