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Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Children With Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

Information source: Children's Oncology Group
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Leukemia

Intervention: asparaginase (Drug); cyclophosphamide (Drug); cytarabine (Drug); daunorubicin hydrochloride (Drug); dexamethasone (Drug); doxorubicin hydrochloride (Drug); idarubicin (Drug); mercaptopurine (Drug); methotrexate (Drug); pegaspargase (Drug); prednisone (Drug); thioguanine (Drug); vincristine sulfate (Drug); radiation therapy (Radiation)

Phase: Phase 3

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: Children's Oncology Group

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Nita L. Seibel, MD, Study Chair, Affiliation: Children's Research Institute


RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy use different ways to stop cancer cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. Combining more than one drug and giving the drugs in different combinations may kill more cancer cells. PURPOSE: Randomized phase III trial to compare the effectiveness of standard combination chemotherapy treatment with more intensive combination chemotherapy in treating children with acute lymphocytic leukemia.

Clinical Details

Official title: Treatment of Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With Unfavorable Features: A Phase III Group-wide Study

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Primary outcome: Event Free Survival

Detailed description: OBJECTIVES: I. Compare the outcomes in children with higher risk acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) treated with postinduction chemotherapy based on marrow response on day 7 of induction therapy: for patients with rapid early response (M1/M2), standard vs intensified consolidation chemotherapy and standard vs prolonged duration of intensification chemotherapy; for patients with slow early response, addition of doxorubicin vs idarubicin and cyclophosphamide to intensification chemotherapy. II. Decrease the incidence of avascular necrosis by alternating dexamethasone dosing in patients undergoing 2 courses of delayed intensification. III. Assess the impact of day 7 marrow status on outcome in these patients. IV. Determine prognosis more precisely by supplementing presenting clinical features, immunophenotype, ploidy, cytogenetics, and early marrow response with BAX/BCL-2 ratios, pattern of tyrosine kinase activation, leukemic burden following induction and intensification therapy, and development of high antibody titer to E. coli asparaginase. V. Correlate the traditional prognostic factors of day 7 marrow response, immunophenotype, ploidy, cytogenetics, and early marrow response with BAX/BCL-2 ratios. OUTLINE: This is a partially randomized, multicenter study. Patients are stratified by center. Patients receive one course of the VPLD regimen comprised of vincristine IV and daunorubicin IV over 15 minutes to 2 hours on days 0 and 7, oral prednisone daily on days 0-7, intrathecal cytarabine on day 0, and asparaginase or pegaspargase intramuscularly on days 3, 5, and 7. Patients are assigned to 1 of 2 two postinduction chemotherapy groups based on bone marrow response on day 7 of induction. Patients with M1/M2 marrow on day 7 are considered rapid early responders. Patients with M3 marrow on day 7 are considered slow early responders. Group 1: Rapid early responders Patients receive 2 additional courses of VPLD induction chemotherapy. Patients are then randomized to 1 of 4 treatment arms: Arm I: Beginning on day 35 of induction therapy, patients receive standard Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (BFM) regimen with standard delayed intensification. Standard BFM for patients in arm I consists of the following: consolidation over 5 weeks with cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, and mercaptopurine; interim maintenance over 8 weeks with oral methotrexate and mercaptopurine (MTX/MP); and delayed intensification over 7 weeks consisting of reinduction with vincristine, doxorubicin, oral dexamethasone, and asparaginase or pegaspargase followed by reconsolidation with cyclophosphamide, thioguanine, and cytarabine. Arm II: Patients receive standard BFM regimen with double delayed intensification. Patients receive therapy similar to those in arm I, but dexamethasone is interrupted for 1 week during delayed intensification and the intensification regimen is repeated, separated by an 8 week interim maintenance course of oral MTX/MP. Arm III: Patients receive augmented BFM regimen with standard delayed intensification. Patients receive 9 weeks of consolidation therapy with 2 courses of vincristine and pegaspargase alternating with the arm I consolidation therapy. Vincristine, intravenous methotrexate, and pegaspargase (the Capizzi I regimen) are substituted for oral MTX/MP in the interim maintenance regimen. Pegaspargase is substituted for asparaginase and two additional doses of vincristine are administered during delayed intensification. Arm IV: Patients receive augmented BFM regimen with double delayed intensification. Patients receive intensified chemotherapy throughout, combining the additional therapy given to patients in arms II and III. Patients receiving augmented BFM regimen receive pegaspargase instead of asparaginase. Patients with CNS disease at diagnosis are treated only on arm IV. Patients who are Philadelphia chromosome positive and do not have a bone marrow donor are nonrandomly assigned to the treatment group for slow early responders. All RER patients receive the same maintenance therapy with vincristine/prednisone and oral MTX/MP. Intrathecal methotrexate is administered periodically throughout protocol treatment. Group 2: Slow early responders Patients receive augmented BFM consolidation therapy and Capizzi I interim maintenance identical to that received by rapid early responders in arm IV. Patients are then randomized to receive double delayed intensification with either idarubicin or doxorubicin and concurrent cyclophosphamide. All patients receive the same maintenance therapy with vincristine/prednisone and oral MTX/MP. Intrathecal MTX is administered periodically throughout protocol treatment. Patients with CNS disease at entry receive craniospinal irradiation daily for 5 consecutive days beginning on day 0 of consolidation therapy. All slow early responders at diagnosis receive cranial irradiation daily for 5 consecutive days during consolidation therapy. Patients with testicular leukemia at diagnosis receive bilateral testicular irradiation daily for 5 consecutive days during consolidation chemotherapy. Groups 1 and 2: Maintenance therapy continues for 2 years for girls or 3 years for boys beyond completion of consolidation therapy. Patients are followed every 4-6 weeks for 1 year, every 3 months for 1 year, every 6 months for 2 years, and then annually thereafter. PROJECTED ACCRUAL: Approximately 1,520 patients will be accrued for this study over 4 years.


Minimum age: 1 Year. Maximum age: 21 Years. Gender(s): Both.


DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) with M3 bone marrow No FAB L3 morphology CNS or overt testicular leukemia at diagnosis allowed High risk status 10-21 years old with any white blood count (WBC) 1-9 years old with WBC of 50,000/mm3 or greater PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS: Age: 1 to 21 Performance status: Not specified Life expectancy: Not specified Hematopoietic: See Disease Characteristics Hepatic: Not specified Renal: Not specified PRIOR CONCURRENT THERAPY: No prior therapy for ALL except: Emergency therapy for blast crisis, superior vena cava syndrome, or renal failure due to leukemic infiltration Biologic therapy: Not specified Chemotherapy: Intrathecal cytarabine or methotrexate allowed at diagnostic lumbar puncture Induction therapy must begin within 72 hours after intrathecal injection Endocrine therapy: At least 1-2 months since prior prednisone, for less than 48 hours, for reactive airway disease Inhalational steroids allowed Radiotherapy: Not specified Surgery: Not specified

Locations and Contacts

British Columbia Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia V6H 3V4, Canada

Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, California 90806, United States

Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90027-0700, United States

Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1781, United States

Children's Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California 92868, United States

UCSF Cancer Center and Cancer Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94143-0128, United States

Children's Hospital of Denver, Denver, Colorado 80218, United States

Children's National Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia 20010-2970, United States

University of Chicago Cancer Research Center, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1470, United States

Indiana University Cancer Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-5289, United States

Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center at The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242-1009, United States

University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0752, United States

University of Minnesota Cancer Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States

Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, United States

Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri 64108, United States

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198-3330, United States

Saint Peter's University Hospital, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-1780, United States

Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York 10032, United States

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, United States

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, United States

NYU School of Medicine's Kaplan Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York 10016, United States

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, UNC, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7295, United States

IWK Health Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 3G9, Canada

Children's Hospital Medical Center - Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229-3039, United States

Ireland Cancer Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-5065, United States

Children's Hospital of Columbus, Columbus, Ohio 43205-2696, United States

Doernbecher Children's Hospital, Portland, Oregon 97201-3098, United States

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, United States

Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-6838, United States

University of Texas - MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009, United States

Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center - Seattle, Seattle, Washington 98105, United States

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109-1024, United States

Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, Western Australia 6001, Australia

University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin 53792-6164, United States

Additional Information

Clinical trial summary from the National Cancer Institute's PDQ® database

Related publications:

Nguyen K, Devidas M, Cheng SC, La M, Raetz EA, Carroll WL, Winick NJ, Hunger SP, Gaynon PS, Loh ML; Children's Oncology Group. Factors influencing survival after relapse from acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group study. Leukemia. 2008 Dec;22(12):2142-50. doi: 10.1038/leu.2008.251. Epub 2008 Sep 25.

Butturini AM, Dorey FJ, Lange BJ, Henry DW, Gaynon PS, Fu C, Franklin J, Siegel SE, Seibel NL, Rogers PC, Sather H, Trigg M, Bleyer WA, Carroll WL. Obesity and outcome in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2007 May 20;25(15):2063-9.

Avramis VI, Panosyan EH. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships of asparaginase formulations: the past, the present and recommendations for the future. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44(4):367-93. Review.

Seibel NL, Asselin BL, Nachman JB, et al.: Treatment of high risk T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL): comparison of recent experience of the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and Pediatric Oncology Group (POG). [Abstract] Blood 104 (11): A-681, 2004.

Starting date: September 1996
Last updated: August 23, 2013

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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