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Zometa (Zoledronic Acid) - Side Effects and Adverse Reactions

 
 



  ADVERSE REACTIONS

Clinical Studies Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Hypercalcemia of Malignancy

The safety of Zometa was studied in 185 patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) who received either Zometa 4 mg given as a 5-minute intravenous infusion (n=86) or pamidronate 90 mg given as a 2-hour intravenous infusion (n=103). The population was aged 33-84 years, 60% male and 81% Caucasian, with breast, lung, head and neck, and renal cancer as the most common forms of malignancy. NOTE: pamidronate 90 mg was given as a 2-hour intravenous infusion. The relative safety of pamidronate 90 mg given as a 2-hour intravenous infusion compared to the same dose given as a 24-hour intravenous infusion has not been adequately studied in controlled clinical trials.

Renal Toxicity

Administration of Zometa 4 mg given as a 5-minute intravenous infusion has been shown to result in an increased risk of renal toxicity, as measured by increases in serum creatinine, which can progress to renal failure. The incidence of renal toxicity and renal failure has been shown to be reduced when Zometa 4 mg is given as a 15-minute intravenous infusion. Zometa should be administered by intravenous infusion over no less than 15 minutes [ see Warnings And Precautions (5) and Dosage And Administration (2) ].

      The most frequently observed adverse events were fever, nausea, constipation, anemia, and dyspnea (see Table 3).

      Table 3 provides adverse events that were reported by 10% or more of the 189 patients treated with Zometa 4 mg or Pamidronate 90 mg from the two HCM trials. Adverse events are listed regardless of presumed causality to study drug.

Table 3: Percentage of Patients with Adverse Events ≥10% Reported in Hypercalcemia of Malignancy Clinical Trials by Body System
Zometa Pamidronate
4 mg 90 mg
n (%) n (%)
Patients Studied
Total No. of Patients Studied86(100)103(100)
Total No. of Patients with any AE81(94)95(92)
Body as a Whole
Fever38(44)34(33)
Progression of Cancer14(16)21(20)
Cardiovascular
Hypotension9(11)2(2)
Digestive
Nausea25(29)28(27)
Constipation23(27)13(13)
Diarrhea15(17)17(17)
Abdominal Pain14(16)13(13)
Vomiting12(14)17(17)
Anorexia8(9)14(14)
Hemic and Lymphatic System
Anemia19(22)18(18)
Infections
Moniliasis10(12)4(4)
Laboratory Abnormalities
Hypophosphatemia11(13)2(2)
Hypokalemia10(12)16(16)
Hypomagnesemia9(11)5(5)
Musculoskeletal
Skeletal Pain10(12)10(10)
Nervous
Insomnia13(15)10(10)
Anxiety12(14)8(8)
Confusion11(13)13(13)
Agitation11(13)8(8)
Respiratory
Dyspnea19(22)20(19)
Coughing10(12)12(12)
Urogenital
Urinary Tract Infection12(14)15(15)

      The following adverse events from the two controlled multicenter HCM trials (n=189) were reported by a greater percentage of patients treated with Zometa 4 mg than with pamidronate 90 mg and occurred with a frequency of greater than or equal to 5% but less than 10%. Adverse events are listed regardless of presumed causality to study drug: Asthenia, chest pain, leg edema, mucositis, dysphagia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, nonspecific infection, hypocalcemia, dehydration, arthralgias, headache and somnolence.

      Rare cases of rash, pruritus, and chest pain have been reported following treatment with Zometa.

Acute Phase Reaction -like Events

Symptoms consistent with acute phase reaction (APR) can occur with intravenous bisphosphonate use. Fever has been the most commonly associated symptom, occurring in 44% of patients treated with Zometa 4 mg and 33% of patients treated with Pamidronate 90 mg. Occasionally, patients experience a flu-like syndrome consisting of fever, chills, flushing, bone pain and/or arthralgias, and myalgias.

Mineral and Electrolyte Abnormalities

Electrolyte abnormalities, most commonly hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia, can occur with bisphosphonate use.

      Grade 3 and Grade 4 laboratory abnormalities for serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, and serum magnesium observed in two clinical trials of Zometa in patients with HCM are shown in Table 4 and 5.

Table 4: Grade 3 Laboratory Abnormalities for Serum Creatinine, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorus, and Serum Magnesium in Two Clinical Trials in Patients with HCM
Grade 3
Laboratory Parameter Zometa Pamidronate
4 mg 90 mg
n/N (%) n/N (%)
Serum Creatinine12/86(2%)3/100(3%)
Hypocalcemia21/86(1%)2/100(2%)
Hypophosphatemia336/70(51%)27/81(33%)
Hypomagnesemia40/710/84
Table 5: Grade 4 Laboratory Abnormalities for Serum Creatinine, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorus, and Serum Magnesium in Two Clinical Trials in Patients with HCM
Grade 4
Laboratory Parameter Zometa Pamidronate
4 mg 90 mg
n/N (%) n/N (%)
Serum Creatinine10/861/100(1%)
Hypocalcemia20/860/100
Hypophosphatemia31/70(1%)4/81(5%)
Hypomagnesemia40/711/84(1%)
1 Grade 3 (>3x Upper Limit of Normal); Grade 4 (>6x Upper Limit of Normal)
2 Grade 3 (<7 mg/dL); Grade 4 (<6 mg/dL)
3 Grade 3 (<2 mg/dL); Grade 4 (<1 mg/dL)
4 Grade 3 (<0.8 mEq/L); Grade 4 (<0.5 mEq/L)

Injection Site Reactions

Local reactions at the infusion site, such as redness or swelling, were observed infrequently. In most cases, no specific treatment is required and the symptoms subside after 24-48 hours.

Ocular Adverse Events

Ocular inflammation such as uveitis and scleritis can occur with bisphosphonate use. No cases of iritis, scleritis or uveitis were reported during these clinical trials.

Multiple Myeloma and Bone Metastases of Solid Tumors

The safety analysis includes patients treated in the core and extension phases of the trials. The analysis includes the 2,042 patients treated with Zometa 4 mg, pamidronate 90 mg, or placebo in the three controlled multicenter bone metastases trials, including 969 patients completing the efficacy phase of the trial, and 619 patients that continued in the safety extension phase. Only 347 patients completed the extension phases and were followed for 2 years (or 21 months for the other solid tumor patients). The median duration of exposure for safety analysis for Zometa 4 mg (core plus extension phases) was 12.8 months for breast cancer and multiple myeloma, 10.8 months for prostate cancer, and 4.0 months for other solid tumors.

      Table 6 describes adverse events that were reported by ≥10% of patients. Adverse events are listed regardless of presumed causality to study drug.

Table 6: Percentage of Patients with Adverse Events ≥10% Reported in Three Bone Metastases Clinical Trials by Body System
Zometa Pamidronate Placebo
4 mg 90 mg
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Patients Studied
Total No. of Patients1031(100)556(100)455(100)
Total No. of Patients with any AE1015(98)548(99)445(98)
Blood and Lymphatic
Anemia344(33)175(32)128(28)
Neutropenia124(12)83(15)35(8)
Thrombocytopenia102(10)53(10)20(4)
Gastrointestinal
Nausea476(46)266(48)171(38)
Vomiting333(32)183(33)122(27)
Constipation320(31)162(29)174(38)
Diarrhea249(24)162(29)83(18)
Abdominal Pain143(14)81(15)48(11)
Dyspepsia105(10)74(13)31(7)
Stomatitis86(8)65(12)14(3)
Sore Throat82(8)61(11)17(4)
General Disorders and Administration Site
Fatigue398(39)240(43)130(29)
Pyrexia328(32)172(31)89(20)
Weakness252(24)108(19)114(25)
Edema Lower Limb215(21)126(23)84(19)
Rigors112(11)62(11)28(6)
Infections
Urinary Tract Infection124(12)50(9)41(9)
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection101(10)82(15)30(7)
Metabolism
Anorexia231(22)81(15)105(23)
Weight Decreased164(16)50(9)61(13)
Dehydration145(14)60(11)59(13)
Appetite Decreased130(13)48(9)45(10)
Musculoskeletal
Bone Pain569(55)316(57)284(62)
Myalgia239(23)143(26)74(16)
Arthralgia216(21)131(24)73(16)
Back Pain156(15)106(19)40(9)
Pain in Limb143(14)84(15)52(11)
Neoplasms
Malignant Neoplasm Aggravated205(20)97(17)89(20)
Nervous
Headache191(19)149(27)50(11)
Dizziness (excluding vertigo)180(18)91(16)58(13)
Insomnia166(16)111(20)73(16)
Paresthesia149(15)85(15)35(8)
Hypoesthesia127(12)65(12)43(10)
Psychiatric
Depression146(14)95(17)49(11)
Anxiety112(11)73(13)37(8)
Confusion74(7)39(7)47(10)
Respiratory
Dyspnea282(27)155(28)107(24)
Cough224(22)129(23)65(14)
Skin
Alopecia125(12)80(14)36(8)
Dermatitis114(11)74(13)38(8)

      Grade 3 and Grade 4 laboratory abnormalities for serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, and serum magnesium observed in three clinical trials of Zometa in patients with bone metastases are shown in Tables 7 and 8.

Table 7: Grade 3 Laboratory Abnormalities for Serum Creatinine, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorus, and Serum Magnesium in Three Clinical Trials in Patients with Bone Metastases
Grade 3
Laboratory Parameter Zometa Pamidronate Placebo
4 mg 90 mg
n/N (%) n/N (%) n/N (%)
Serum Creatinine 1* 7/529(1%)4/268(2%)4/241(2%)
Hypocalcemia 2 6/973(<1%)4/536(<1%)0/415
Hypophosphatemia 3 115/973(12%)38/537(7%)14/415(3%)
Hypermagnesemia 4 19/971(2%)2/535(<1%)8/415(2%)
Hypomagnesemia 5 1/971(<1%)0/5351/415(<1%)
1 Grade 3 (>3x Upper Limit of Normal); Grade 4 (>6x Upper Limit of Normal)
* Serum creatinine data for all patients randomized after the 15-minute infusion amendment
2 Grade 3 (<7 mg/dL); Grade 4 (<6 mg/dL)
3 Grade 3 (<2 mg/dL); Grade 4 (<1 mg/dL)
4 Grade 3 (>3 mEq/L); Grade 4 (>8 mEq/L)
5 Grade 3 (<0.9 mEq/L); Grade 4 (<0.7 mEq/L)
Table 8: Grade 4 Laboratory Abnormalities for Serum Creatinine, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorus, and Serum Magnesium in Three Clinical Trials in Patients with Bone Metastases
Grade 4
Laboratory Parameter Zometa Pamidronate Placebo
4 mg 90 mg
n/N (%) n/N (%) n/N (%)
Serum Creatinine 1* 2/529(<1%)1/268(<1%)0/241
Hypocalcemia 2 7/973(<1%)3/536(<1%)2/415(<1%)
Hypophosphatemia 3 5/973(<1%)0/5371/415(<1%)
Hypermagnesemia 4 0/9710/5352/415(<1%)
Hypomagnesemia 5 2/971(<1%)1/535(<1%)0/415
1 Grade 3 (>3x Upper Limit of Normal); Grade 4 (>6x Upper Limit of Normal)
* Serum creatinine data for all patients randomized after the 15-minute infusion amendment
2 Grade 3 (<7 mg/dL); Grade 4 (<6 mg/dL)
3 Grade 3 (<2 mg/dL); Grade 4 (<1 mg/dL)
4 Grade 3 (>3 mEq/L); Grade 4 (>8 mEq/L)
5 Grade 3 (<0.9 mEq/L); Grade 4 (<0.7 mEq/L)

      Among the less frequently occurring adverse events (<15% of patients), rigors, hypokalemia, influenza-like illness, and hypocalcemia showed a trend for more events with bisphosphonate administration (Zometa 4 mg and pamidronate groups) compared to the placebo group.

      Less common adverse events reported more often with Zometa 4 mg than pamidronate included decreased weight, which was reported in 16% of patients in the Zometa 4 mg group compared with 9% in the pamidronate group. Decreased appetite was reported in slightly more patients in the Zometa 4 mg group (13%) compared with the pamidronate (9%) and placebo (10%) groups, but the clinical significance of these small differences is not clear.

Renal Toxicity

In the bone metastases trials, renal deterioration was defined as an increase of 0.5 mg/dL for patients with normal baseline creatinine (<1.4 mg/dL) or an increase of 1.0 mg/dL for patients with an abnormal baseline creatinine (≥1.4 mg/dL). The following are data on the incidence of renal deterioration in patients receiving Zometa 4 mg over 15 minutes in these trials (see Table 9).

Table 9: Percentage of Patients with Treatment Emergent Renal Function Deterioration by Baseline Serum Creatinine*
Patient Population/Baseline Creatinine
Multiple Myeloma and Breast Cancer Zometa 4 mg Pamidronate 90 mg
n/N (%) n/N (%)
Normal27/246(11%)23/246(9%)
Abnormal2/26(8%)2/22(9%)
Total29/272(11%)25/268(9%)
Solid Tumors Zometa 4 mg Placebo
n/N (%) n/N (%)
Normal17/154(11%)10/143(7%)
Abnormal1/11(9%)1/20(5%)
Total18/165(11%)11/163(7%)
Prostate Cancer Zometa 4 mg Placebo
n/N (%) n/N (%)
Normal12/82(15%)8/68(12%)
Abnormal4/10(40%)2/10(20%)
Total16/92(17%)10/78(13%)
*Table includes only patients who were randomized to the trial after a protocol amendment that lengthened the infusion duration of Zometa to 15 minutes.

      The risk of deterioration in renal function appeared to be related to time on study, whether patients were receiving Zometa (4 mg over 15 minutes), placebo, or pamidronate.

      In the trials and in postmarketing experience, renal deterioration, progression to renal failure and dialysis have occurred in patients with normal and abnormal baseline renal function, including patients treated with 4 mg infused over a 15-minute period. There have been instances of this occurring after the initial Zometa dose.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

      The following adverse reactions have been reported during postapproval use of Zometa. Because these reports are from a population of uncertain size and are subject to confounding factors, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

Cases of osteonecrosis (primarily involving the jaws) have been reported predominantly in cancer patients treated with intravenous bisphosphonates including Zometa. Many of these patients were also receiving chemotherapy and corticosteroids which may be a risk factor for ONJ. Data suggests a greater frequency of reports of ONJ in certain cancers, such as advanced breast cancer and multiple myeloma. The majority of the reported cases are in cancer patients following invasive dental procedures, such as tooth extraction. It is therefore prudent to avoid invasive dental procedures as recovery may be prolonged [ see Warnings And Precautions (5) ].

Musculoskeletal Pain

Severe and occasionally incapacitating bone, joint, and/or muscle pain has been reported with bisphosphonate use [ see Warnings And Precautions (5)].

Ocular Adverse Events

Cases of uveitis and episcleritis have been reported during postmarketing use. Bisphosphonates may be associated with ocular inflammation such as uveitis and scleritis. In some cases, these events did not resolve until the bisphosphonate was discontinued.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

There have been rare reports of allergic reaction with intravenous zoledronic acid including angioedema, and bronchoconstriction. Very rare cases of anaphylactic reaction/shock have also been reported.

      Additional adverse reactions reported in postmarketing use include:

      CNS : taste disturbance, hyperesthesia, tremor; Special Senses : blurred vision; Gastrointestinal : dry mouth; Skin : Increased sweating; Musculoskeletal : muscle cramps; Cardiovascular : hypertension, bradycardia, hypotension (associated with syncope or circulatory collapse primarily in patients with underlying risk factors); Respiratory: bronchoconstriction; Renal : hematuria, proteinuria; General Disorders   and   Administration Site : weight increase; Laboratory Abnormalities : hyperkalemia, hypernatremia.



REPORTS OF SUSPECTED ZOMETA SIDE EFFECTS / ADVERSE REACTIONS

Below is a sample of reports where side effects / adverse reactions may be related to Zometa. The information is not vetted and should not be considered as verified clinical evidence.

Possible Zometa side effects / adverse reactions in 75 year old female

Reported by a physician from Japan on 2011-10-04

Patient: 75 year old female

Reactions: Pelvic Fracture

Adverse event resulted in: hospitalization

Suspect drug(s):
Zometa

Other drugs received by patient: Chemotherapeutics; Hormones; Xeloda; Cyclophosphamide



Possible Zometa side effects / adverse reactions in 81 year old female

Reported by a health professional (non-physician/pharmacist) from Spain on 2011-10-04

Patient: 81 year old female

Reactions: Osteonecrosis of JAW

Suspect drug(s):
Zometa

Other drugs received by patient: Nolotil; Carvedilol; Enalapril Maleate; Omeprazole; Faslodex



Possible Zometa side effects / adverse reactions in 67 year old male

Reported by a physician from Japan on 2011-10-04

Patient: 67 year old male

Reactions: Osteonecrosis of JAW, Gingival Swelling, Purulent Discharge, Pain in JAW

Suspect drug(s):
Zometa
    Dosage: 4 mg,
    Indication: non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
    Start date: 2010-07-12
    End date: 2010-11-19

Avastin
    Dosage: 5 mg/kg
    Indication: non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
    Start date: 2010-07-20
    End date: 2010-11-19

Other drugs received by patient: Paclitaxel; Granisetron; Famotidine; Decadron; Carboplatin



See index of all Zometa side effect reports >>

Drug label data at the top of this Page last updated: 2008-05-27

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