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Veletri (Epoprostenol) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Overdosage, etc

 
 



DRUG INTERACTIONS

Additional reductions in blood pressure may occur when VELETRI is administered with diuretics, antihypertensive agents, or other vasodilators. When other antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants are used concomitantly, there is the potential for VELETRI to increase the risk of bleeding. However, patients receiving infusions of epoprostenol in clinical trials were maintained on anticoagulants without evidence of increased bleeding. In clinical trials, epoprostenol was used with digoxin, diuretics, anticoagulants, oral vasodilators, and supplemental oxygen.

In a pharmacokinetic substudy in patients with congestive heart failure receiving furosemide or digoxin in whom therapy with epoprostenol was initiated, apparent oral clearance values for furosemide (n = 23) and digoxin (n = 30) were decreased by 13% and 15%, respectively, on the second day of therapy and had returned to baseline values by day 87. The change in furosemide clearance value is not likely to be clinically significant. However, patients on digoxin may show elevations of digoxin concentrations after initiation of therapy with epoprostenol, which may be clinically significant in patients prone to digoxin toxicity.

OVERDOSAGE

Signs and symptoms of excessive doses of epoprostenol during clinical trials are the expected dose-limiting pharmacologic effects of epoprostenol, including flushing, headache, hypotension, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Treatment will ordinarily require dose reduction of epoprostenol.

One patient with secondary pulmonary hypertension accidentally received 50 mL of an unspecified concentration of epoprostenol. The patient vomited and became unconscious with an initially unrecordable blood pressure. Epoprostenol was discontinued and the patient regained consciousness within seconds. In clinical practice, fatal occurrences of hypoxemia, hypotension, and respiratory arrest have been reported following overdosage of epoprostenol.

Single intravenous doses of epoprostenol at 10 and 50 mg/kg (2,703 and 27,027 times the recommended acute phase human dose based on body surface area) were lethal to mice and rats, respectively. Symptoms of acute toxicity were hypoactivity, ataxia, loss of righting reflex, deep slow breathing, and hypothermia.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

A large study evaluating the effect of epoprostenol on survival in NYHA Class III and IV patients with congestive heart failure due to severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction was terminated after an interim analysis of 471 patients revealed a higher mortality in patients receiving epoprostenol plus conventional therapy than in those receiving conventional therapy alone. The chronic use of VELETRI in patients with congestive heart failure due to severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction is therefore contraindicated.

Some patients with pulmonary hypertension have developed pulmonary edema during dose initiation, which may be associated with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. VELETRI should not be used chronically in patients who develop pulmonary edema during dose initiation.

VELETRI is also contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug or to structurally related compounds.

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