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Vancomycin (Vancomycin Hydrochloride) - Summary



Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules, USP for oral administration contain chromatographically purified vancomycin hydrochloride (a white to slightly red or slightly brown semi-solid matrix), a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic derived from Amycolatopsis orientalis (formerly Nocardia orientalis ); 500 mg of the base is equivalent to 0.34 mmol. The 125 mg capsules contain vancomycin hydrochloride equivalent to 125 mg (0.08 mmol) vancomycin.

Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules, USP are indicated for the treatment of C.   difficile -associated diarrhea.  Vancomycin hydrochloride capsules, USP are also used for the treatment of enterocolitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains).  Parenteral administration of vancomycin is not effective for the above infections; therefore, vancomycin hydrochloride, USP must be given orally for these infections.

Orally administered vancomycin hydrochloride is not effective for other types of infections.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of vancomycin hydrochloride, USP and other antibacterial drugs, vancomycin hydrochloride, USP should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria.  When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy.  In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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Media Articles Related to Vancomycin

Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE)
Source: MedicineNet Endocarditis Specialty [2015.05.11]
Title: Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE)
Category: Diseases and Conditions
Created: 5/8/2007 12:00:00 AM
Last Editorial Review: 5/11/2015 12:00:00 AM

Zyvox® shows cost savings for treatment of skin infections
Source: The Doctors Lounge - Infections
Oral Zyvox® shows cost savings for outpatient treatment of skin and other infections when compared to vancomycin.

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Published Studies Related to Vancomycin

Health economic evaluation of patients treated for nosocomial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of vancomycin and linezolid. [2014]
PURPOSE: Results from studies comparing health care resource use (HCRU), costs of treatment, and cost-effectiveness of linezolid compared with vancomycin therapy in the treatment of hospitalized patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nosocomial pneumonia are limited in the published literature...

Resolution of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in patients with cancer treated with fidaxomicin or vancomycin. [2013]
difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Little is known about treatment response... CONCLUSION: For patients with cancer, fidaxomicin treatment was superior to

Randomised clinical trial: vancomycin or metronidazole in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis - a pilot study. [2013]
in patients with PSC... CONCLUSIONS: Both vancomycin and metronidazole demonstrated efficacy; however,

Reduced acquisition and overgrowth of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and Candida species in patients treated with fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection. [2012]
Fidaxomicin causes less disruption of anaerobic microbiota during treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) than vancomycin and has activity against many vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). In conjunction with a multicenter randomized trial of fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for CDI treatment, we tested the hypothesis that fidaxomicin promotes VRE and Candida species colonization less than vancomycin...

Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of vancomycin for the treatment of patients with gram-positive infections: focus on the study design. [2012]
of other antibiotics for the treatment of gram-positive infections... CONCLUSION: On the basis mainly of data from open-label trials, vancomycin is a

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Clinical Trials Related to Vancomycin

Trial of Prophylactic Versus Empirical Vancomycin for the Prevention of Streptococcal Sepsis After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation [Completed]
This is a randomized 2-arm study to compare two different times of giving the drug vancomycin. Half of the patients will begin vancomycin two days before a bone marrow transplant. The other half will get it as soon as they have the first fever.

Streptococci are bacteria that live in one's mouth and gut. These bacteria can escape into the blood when the lining of the mouth and gut weakens from cancer therapy. This can make the person who is undergoing a bone marrow transplant very sick. All patients who get this infection are treated with antibiotics. Vancomycin is one drug that is used to treat this bloodstream infection once it is diagnosed. Studies have shown that giving vancomycin before a bone marrow transplant seems to prevent this infection. However, giving vancomycin too soon may increase the chance that the kidneys will be irritated. It may also increase the chance that other bacteria will become resistant to this drug. We, the investigators at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, do not know if waiting to start vancomycin until the patient has a first fever can also prevent this infection.

Vancomycin Study: Treatment of Catheter Related Bloodstream Infection Caused by Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus [Completed]
Patients admitted into the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) have an intravenous (IV) catheter (small plastic tube) placed in their vein. Very occasionally (4 times out of 100) the insertion of an intravenous catheter may cause an infection in the blood. It has been shown that the removal of the catheter and the insertion of a new one at a new site helps to get rid of this infection. Sometimes, antibiotics are also given.

Vancomycin is the antibiotic given intravenously (into the vein) to treat these catheter-related infections. At Vancouver General Hospital, some physicians may not give any vancomycin at all whereas others may treat with intravenous (IV) vancomycin for one to fourteen days.

Since there are a lack of data to support the length of IV vancomycin therapy, the investigators would like to find out if two days of IV vancomycin are as good as seven days.

Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine if two days of IV vancomycin are as good as seven days for the treatment of catheter-related infections in the blood.

Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in the ICU in Renal Replacement Therapy [Recruiting]
This study is an observational analysis that monitors the effect of different dialysis methods on vancomycin levels when patients are critically ill. No changes are made to therapy based on levels, but levels are checked more frequently than normal. The primary dialysis methods being studied are SLED (slow-low efficiency daily) dialysis and intermittent hemodialysis. Vancomycin is the only medication being evaluated in this study. This study will provide detailed information on how to dose vancomycin in patients that are on dialysis in the intensive care unit.

Evaluating the Use of Large-dose, Extended Interval Vancomycin Intravenous Administration for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections [Recruiting]

Intracolonic Vancomycin Therapy in Severe C. Diff Colitis [Recruiting]
Clostridium difficile is a bacteria that can infect the colon and cause severe diarrhea in patients after recent antibiotic use. The current standard of care treatment for severe C. diff. consists of oral vancomycin and/or intravenous metronidazole. When treatment is unsuccessful, it can lead to need for removal of the entire colon or even death. In fact, mortality rates in the literature range from 11-37% for C. diff. The most commonly quoted mortality rate is 14% for severe infection. It is believed that the failure of treatment may stem from an adynamic ileus (paralysis of the small bowel). This ileus may prevent the oral vancomycin from reaching the colon and therefore it does not treat the problem. Vancomycin functions by direct contact with the colon. Therefore, if the vancomycin is instilled directly into the colon, it can come into contact with and be its intended target. : The objective of the study is to improve treatment of severe C. diff. colitis . C. diff. infection is defined as severe if there is evidence of ileus accompanied by any one of the following: fever greater than 38. 30C, , acidemia, serum albumin less than 2. 5, or white blood cell count greater than 14,000.

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Reports of Suspected Vancomycin Side Effects

Drug Rash With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (104)Renal Failure Acute (100)Pyrexia (62)Renal Failure (45)Hypotension (35)Septic Shock (35)Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (34)Thrombocytopenia (31)Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (31)Renal Impairment (28)more >>

Page last updated: 2015-05-11

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