Mechanism of Action
Lapatinib is a 4-anilinoquinazoline kinase inhibitor of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domains of both Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR [ErbB1]) and of Human Epidermal Receptor Type 2 (HER2 [ErbB2]) receptors (estimated Kiapp values of 3nM and 13nM, respectively) with a dissociation half-life of ≥300 minutes. Lapatinib inhibits ErbB-driven tumor cell growth in vitro and in various animal models.
An additive effect was demonstrated in an in vitro study when lapatinib and 5-FU (the active metabolite of capecitabine) were used in combination in the 4 tumor cell lines tested. The growth inhibitory effects of lapatinib were evaluated in trastuzumab-conditioned cell lines. Lapatinib retained significant activity against breast cancer cell lines selected for long-term growth in trastuzumab-containing medium in vitro. These in vitro findings suggest non-cross-resistance between these two agents.
Absorption following oral administration of TYKERB is incomplete and variable. Serum concentrations appear after a median lag time of 0.25 hours (range 0 to 1.5 hour). Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of lapatinib are achieved approximately 4 hours after administration. Daily dosing of TYKERB results in achievement of steady state within 6 to 7 days, indicating an effective half-life of 24 hours.
At the dose of 1,250 mg daily, steady state geometric mean (95% confidence interval) values of Cmax were 2.43 mcg/mL (1.57 to 3.77 mcg/mL) and AUC were 36.2 mcg.hr/mL (23.4 to 56 mcg.hr/mL).
Divided daily doses of TYKERB resulted in approximately 2-fold higher exposure at steady state (steady state AUC) compared to the same total dose administered once daily.
Systemic exposure to lapatinib is increased when administered with food. Lapatinib AUC values were approximately 3- and 4-fold higher (Cmax approximately 2.5- and 3-fold higher) when administered with a low fat (5% fat-500 calories) or with a high fat (50% fat-1,000 calories) meal, respectively.
Lapatinib is highly bound (>99%) to albumin and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. In vitro studies indicate that lapatinib is a substrate for the transporters breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1). Lapatinib has also been shown in vitro to inhibit these efflux transporters, as well as the hepatic uptake transporter OATP 1B1, at clinically relevant concentrations.
Lapatinib undergoes extensive metabolism, primarily by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, with minor contributions from CYP2C19 and CYP2C8 to a variety of oxidated metabolites, none of which accounts for more than 14% of the dose recovered in the feces or 10% of lapatinib concentration in plasma.
At clinical doses, the terminal phase half-life following a single dose was 14.2 hours; accumulation with repeated dosing indicates an effective half-life of 24 hours.
Elimination of lapatinib is predominantly through metabolism by CYP3A4/5 with negligible (<2%) renal excretion. Recovery of parent lapatinib in feces accounts for a median of 27% (range 3 to 67%) of an oral dose.
Effects of Age, Gender, or Race
Studies of the effects of age, gender, or race on the pharmacokinetics of lapatinib have not been performed.
The QT prolongation potential of lapatinib was assessed as part of an uncontrolled, open-label dose escalation study in advanced cancer patients. Eighty-one patients received daily doses of lapatinib ranging from 175 mg/day to 1,800 mg/day. Serial ECGs were collected on Day 1 and Day 14 to evaluate the effect of lapatinib on QT intervals. Thirteen of the 81 subjects were found to have either QTcF (corrected QT by the Friedericia method) >480 msec or an increase in QTcF >60 msec by automated machine-read evaluation of ECG. Analysis of the data suggested a relationship between lapatinib concentration and the QTc interval.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Two-year carcinogenicity studies with lapatinib are ongoing.
Lapatinib was not clastogenic or mutagenic in the Chinese hamster ovary chromosome aberration assay, microbial mutagenesis (Ames) assay, human lymphocyte chromosome aberration assay or the in vivo rat bone marrow chromosome aberration assay at single doses up to 2,000 mg/kg. However, an impurity in the drug product (up to 4 ppm or 8 mcg/day) was genotoxic when tested alone in both in vitro and in vivo assays.
There were no effects on male or female rat mating or fertility at doses up to 120 mg/kg/day in females and 180 mg/kg/day in males (approximately 6.4 times and 2.6 times the expected human clinical exposure based on AUC, respectively). The effect of lapatinib on human fertility is unknown. However, when female rats were given oral doses of lapatinib during breeding and through the first 6 days of gestation, a significant decrease in the number of live fetuses was seen at 120 mg/kg/day and in the fetal body weights at ≥60 mg/kg/day (approximately 6.4 times and 3.3 times the expected human clinical exposure based on AUC, respectively).