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Truvada (Emtricitabine / Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate) - Summary



Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogs, including VIREAD, a component of TRUVADA, in combination with other antiretrovirals [See Warnings and Precautions].

TRUVADA is not approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the safety and efficacy of TRUVADA have not been established in patients coinfected with HBV and HIV-1. Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with HBV and HIV-1 and have discontinued TRUVADA. Therefore, hepatic function should be monitored closely with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in patients who are infected with HBV and discontinue TRUVADA. If appropriate, initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted [See Warnings and Precautions].

TRUVADA used for a PrEP indication must only be prescribed to individuals confirmed to be HIV-negative immediately prior to initiating and periodically (at least every 3 months) during use. Drug-resistant HIV-1 variants have been identified with use of TRUVADA for a PrEP indication following undetected acute HIV-1 infection. Do not initiate TRUVADA for a PrEP indication if signs or symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection are present unless negative infection status is confirmed [See Warnings and Precautions].



TRUVADA tablets are fixed dose combination tablets containing emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. EMTRIVA is the brand name for emtricitabine, a synthetic nucleoside analog of cytidine. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir DF) is converted in vivo to tenofovir, an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (nucleotide) analog of adenosine 5'-monophosphate. Both emtricitabine and tenofovir exhibit inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

Treatment of HIV-1 Infection

TRUVADA®, a combination of EMTRIVA® and VIREAD®, is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents (such as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or protease inhibitors) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older.

The following points should be considered when initiating therapy with TRUVADA for the treatment of HIV-1 infection:

  • It is not recommended that TRUVADA be used as a component of a triple nucleoside regimen.
  • TRUVADA should not be coadministered with ATRIPLA®, COMPLERA®, EMTRIVA, VIREAD or lamivudine-containing products [See Warnings and Precautions].
  • In treatment experienced patients, the use of TRUVADA should be guided by laboratory testing and treatment history [See Microbiology].
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis

TRUVADA is indicated in combination with safer sex practices for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk of sexually acquired HIV-1 in adults at high risk. This indication is based on clinical trials in men who have sex with men (MSM) at high risk for HIV-1 infection and in heterosexual serodiscordant couples [See Clinical Studies (14.2, 14.3) ].

When considering TRUVADA for pre-exposure prophylaxis the following factors may help to identify individuals at high risk:

  • has partner(s) known to be HIV-1 infected, or
  • engages in sexual activity within a high prevalence area or social network and one or more of the following: inconsistent or no condom use
  • diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections
  • exchange of sex for commodities (such as money, food, shelter, or drugs)
  • use of illicit drugs or alcohol dependence
  • incarceration
  • partner(s) of unknown HIV-1 status with any of the factors listed above

When prescribing TRUVADA for pre-exposure prophylaxis, healthcare providers must:

  • prescribe TRUVADA as part of a comprehensive prevention strategy because TRUVADA is not always effective in preventing the acquisition of HIV-1 infection [See Warnings and Precautions];
  • counsel all uninfected individuals to strictly adhere to the recommended TRUVADA dosing schedule because the effectiveness of TRUVADA in reducing the risk of acquiring HIV-1 was strongly correlated with adherence as demonstrated by measurable drug levels in clinical trials [See Warnings and Precautions];
  • confirm a negative HIV-1 test immediately prior to initiating TRUVADA for a PrEP indication. If clinical symptoms consistent with acute viral infection are present and recent (<1 month) exposures are suspected, delay starting PrEP for at least one month and reconfirm HIV-1 status or use a test approved by the FDA as an aid in the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, including acute or primary HIV-1 infection. [See Warnings and Precautions]; and
  • screen for HIV-1 infection at least once every 3 months while taking TRUVADA for PrEP.

See all Truvada indications & dosage >>


Media Articles Related to Truvada (Emtricitabine / Tenofovir Disoproxil)

No new HIV infections in large pre-exposure prophylaxis study
Source: HIV / AIDS News From Medical News Today [2015.09.03]
An observational study evaluating the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis found that no new cases of HIV infection occurred during an assessment period of 32 months.

Targeting semen proteins to prevent HIV infection
Source: Sexual Health / STDs News From Medical News Today [2015.08.18]
Researchers describe two approaches they say could prevent HIV infection by targeting proteins in semen called amyloid fibrils that boost transmission of the virus.

International team discovers natural defense against HIV
Source: HIV / AIDS News From Medical News Today [2015.09.17]
Researchers at Michigan State University were part of a team to discover a new natural defense against HIV infection.

D.C. needle exchange program prevented 120 new cases of HIV in 2 years
Source: HIV / AIDS News From Medical News Today [2015.09.04]
The District of Columbia's needle exchange program prevented 120 new cases of HIV infection and saved an estimated $44 million over just a two-year period, according to a first-of-a-kind study...

Why do certain hormonal contraceptives increase the risk of HIV?
Source: HIV / AIDS News From Medical News Today [2015.09.02]
In recent years, evidence has been building that injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera or DMPA) is associated with an increased risk of HIV infection.

more news >>

Published Studies Related to Truvada (Emtricitabine / Tenofovir Disoproxil)

A randomized double-blind comparison of coformulated elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: analysis of week 96 results. [2013]
We report week 96 results from a phase 3 trial of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF, n = 348) vs efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF, n = 352). At week 48, EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF was noninferior to EFV/FTC/TDF (88% vs 84%, difference +3.6%, 95% confidence interval: -1.6% to 8.8%)...

Beliefs about antiretroviral therapy, treatment adherence and quality of life in a 48-week randomised study of continuation of zidovudine/lamivudine or switch to tenofovir DF/emtricitabine, each with efavirenz. [2011.06]
Adherence may be facilitated by reducing perceptual and practical barriers to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Practical barriers include the complexity of daily dosing, while perceptual barriers include perceptions of the need for treatment and concerns about adverse effects... Switching from CBV to TVD may improve patient reported outcomes including slightly better adherence, a greater reduction in concerns about adverse effects and less treatment intrusiveness.

Randomized, phase 2 evaluation of two single-tablet regimens elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for the initial treatment of HIV infection. [2011.03.27]
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of two, single-tablet regimens for the initial treatment of HIV infection. DESIGN: Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, active-controlled study... CONCLUSION: Once-daily EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF achieved and maintained a high rate of virologic suppression with fewer central nervous system and psychiatric adverse events compared to a current standard-of-care regimen of EFV/FTC/TDF.

Concomitant administration of BILR 355/r with emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate increases exposure to emtricitabine and tenofovir: a randomized, open-label, prospective study. [2011.03]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction of ritonavir-boosted BILR 355 (BILR 355/r) with emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). This was an open-label, prospective study... There was no evidence of increased risk of TFV or FTC toxicity upon co-administration of FTC/TDF with BILR 355/r.

Patient-reported outcomes in virologically suppressed, HIV-1-Infected subjects after switching to a simplified, single-tablet regimen of efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir DF. [2010.02]
A randomized, open-label, multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic switch to a single-tablet formulation of efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (EFV/FTC/TDF) among virologically suppressed, HIV-1-infected subjects. Eligible subjects on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) with HIV-1 RNA less than 200 copies per milliliter for 3 months or more were stratified by prior protease inhibitor (PI)- or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based therapy and randomized (2:1) to EFV/FTC/TDF or to stay on their baseline regimen (SBR)...

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Clinical Trials Related to Truvada (Emtricitabine / Tenofovir Disoproxil)

FEM-PrEP (Truvada�): Study to Assess the Role of Truvada� in Preventing HIV Acquisition in Women [Completed]
This Phase III, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolled HIV-negative women from 4 sites in 3 countries (Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa). The study's purpose was to investigate the safety and effectiveness of a once-daily Truvada pill (compared with placebo) in preventing HIV among HIV-uninfected women at risk of becoming infected through sexual intercourse. The study population included HIV-antibody-negative women between the ages of 18-35 who were at risk of HIV acquisition through sexual intercourse. Each participant was randomized to take either a daily single oral tablet of Truvada®, which is a fixed-dose combination of emtricitabine (FTC; 200 mg) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF; 300 mg), or an identical placebo. After enrollment, each participant was followed every four weeks. All participants were followed for an additional eight weeks after study drug was stopped. Incidence rates of HIV infection were compared between the two groups (active drug and placebo) using the intent-to-treat principle.

Boosted Atazanavir and Truvada Given Once-Daily - BATON Study [Completed]
To determine the safety and efficacy of a simple, once-daily antiretroviral (ARV) regimen consisting of a fixed-dose combination tablet containing Truvada combined with atazanavir boosted with ritonavir in treatment naive patients.

Switch From Combivir or Trizivir to Truvada - Mitochondrial Effects [Completed]
Study subjects receiving the antiretroviral drugs Combivir or trizivir, will be randomized to switch to Truvada-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or to continue on Combivir or on trizivir. Measurements will be performed at baseline and after 6 months after randomization to either continuing on trizivir or combivir, or to switching to Truvada. Measurements include maximal or peak oxygen consumption, lactate production and clearance, subcutaneous adipose tissue and limb fat contents, insulin resistance, liver and muscle fat contents, and plasma free fatty acid concentrations. The hypothesis underlying this study is that chronic therapy with thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), including zidovudine (AZT), leads to clinically detectable mitochondrial dysfunction in several organ systems.

Raltegravir vs. Atazanavir in Combination With Truvada� for the Treatment of Antiretroviral na�ve HIV Infected Patients [Completed]
This is a pilot that will evaluate two regimens for treating HIV infected patients that haven't been on treatment before. HIV/AIDS patients may have an increased risk of myocardial infarction and antiretroviral therapy used may contribute to this. We will evaluate virological, immunological and cardiovascular effects of two HIV treatment regimens.

Evaluating the Acceptability, Safety, and Use of Daily Truvada Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adolescents [Recruiting]

more trials >>

Reports of Suspected Truvada (Emtricitabine / Tenofovir Disoproxil) Side Effects

Foetal Exposure During Pregnancy (139)Maternal Exposure During Pregnancy (70)Abortion Spontaneous (63)Renal Failure Acute (47)Abortion Induced (33)Pyrexia (28)Anaemia (28)Stillbirth (26)Patent Ductus Arteriosus (24)Premature Baby (23)more >>

Page last updated: 2015-09-17

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