WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Fibrate and statin monotherapy increase the risk of myositis or myopathy, and have been associated with rhabdomyolysis. Data from observational studies suggest that the risk for rhabdomyolysis is increased when fibrates are co-administered with a statin (with a significantly higher rate observed for gemfibrozil). Refer to the respective statin labeling for important drug-drug interactions that increase statin levels and could increase this risk. The risk for serious muscle toxicity appears to be increased in elderly patients and in patients with diabetes, renal failure, or hypothyroidism.
Myalgia was reported in 3.3% of patients treated with Trilipix monotherapy and 3.1% to 3.5% of patients treated with Trilipix co-administered with statins compared to 4.7% to 6.1% of patients treated with statin monotherapy. Increases in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) to > 5 times upper limit of normal occurred in no patients treated with Trilipix monotherapy and 0.2% to 1.2% of patients treated with Trilipix co-administered with statins compared to 0.4% to 1.3% of patients treated with statin monotherapy.
Myopathy should be considered in any patient with diffuse myalgias, muscle tenderness or weakness, and/or marked elevations of CPK levels. Patients should promptly report unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever. CPK levels should be assessed in patients reporting these symptoms, and Trilipix and statin therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CPK levels occur or myopathy or myositis is diagnosed.
Reversible elevations in serum creatinine have been reported in patients receiving Trilipix as monotherapy or co-administered with statins as well as patients receiving fenofibrate. In the pooled analysis of three double-blind controlled studies of Trilipix administered as monotherapy or in combination with statins, increases in creatinine to > 2 mg/dL occurred in 0.8% of patients treated with Trilipix monotherapy and 1.1% to 1.3% of patients treated with Trilipix co-administered with statins compared to 0% to 0.4% of patients treated with statin monotherapy. Elevations in serum creatinine were generally stable over time with no evidence for continued increases in serum creatinine with long-term therapy and tended to return to baseline following discontinuation of treatment. The clinical significance of these observations is unknown. Monitoring renal function in patients with renal impairment taking Trilipix is suggested. Renal monitoring should be considered for patients at risk for renal insufficiency, such as the elderly and those with diabetes.
Trilipix at a dose of 135 mg once daily administered as monotherapy or co-administered with low to moderate doses of statins has been associated with increases in serum transaminases [AST (SGOT) or ALT (SGPT)]. In a pooled analysis of three double-blind controlled studies of Trilipix administered as monotherapy or in combination with statins, increases to > 3 times the upper limit of normal on two consecutive occasions in ALT and AST occurred in 1.9% and 0.2%, respectively, of patients receiving Trilipix monotherapy and in 1.3% and 0.4%, respectively, of patients receiving Trilipix co-administered with statins. Increases to > 3 times the upper limit of normal in ALT and AST occurred in no patients receiving low- to moderate-dose statin monotherapy. Increases to > 3 times the upper limit of normal in ALT and AST occurred in 0.8% and 0.4%, respectively in patients receiving high-dose statin monotherapy. In a long-term study of Trilipix co-administered with statins for up to 52 weeks, increases of > 3 times the upper limit of normal on two consecutive occasions of ALT and AST occurred in 1.2% and 0.5% of patients, respectively. When transaminase determinations were followed either after discontinuation of treatment or during continued treatment, a return to normal limits was usually observed. Increases in ALT and/or AST were not accompanied by increases in bilirubin or clinically significant increases in alkaline phosphatase.
In a pooled analysis of 10 placebo-controlled trials of fenofibrate, increases to > 3 times the upper limit of normal in ALT occurred in 5.3% of patients taking fenofibrate versus 1.1% of patients treated with placebo. The incidence of increases in transaminases observed with fenofibrate therapy may be dose related. In an 8-week dose-ranging study of fenofibrate in hypertriglyceridemia, the incidence of ALT or AST elevations ≥ 3 times the upper limit of normal was 13% in patients receiving dosages equivalent to 90 mg to 135 mg Trilipix once daily and was 0% in those receiving dosages equivalent to 45 mg Trilipix once daily or less, or placebo. Hepatocellular, chronic active, and cholestatic hepatitis observed with fenofibrate therapy have been reported after exposures of weeks to several years. In extremely rare cases, cirrhosis has been reported in association with chronic active hepatitis.
Regular monitoring of liver function, including serum ALT (SGPT) should be performed for the duration of therapy with Trilipix, and therapy discontinued if enzyme levels persist above 3 times the upper limit of normal.
Trilipix, like fenofibrate, clofibrate, and gemfibrozil, may increase cholesterol excretion into the bile, potentially leading to cholelithiasis. If cholelithiasis is suspected, gallbladder studies are indicated. Trilipix therapy should be discontinued if gallstones are found.
Concomitant Oral Anticoagulants
Caution should be exercised when Trilipix is given in conjunction with oral coumarin anticoagulants. Trilipix may potentiate the anticoagulant effects of these agents resulting in prolongation of the prothrombin time/INR. Frequent monitoring of prothrombin time/INR and dose adjustment of the oral anticoagulant are recommended until the prothrombin time/INR has stabilized in order to prevent bleeding complications.
Pancreatitis has been reported in patients taking drugs of the fibrate class, including Trilipix. This occurrence may represent a failure of efficacy in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia, a direct drug effect, or a secondary phenomenon mediated through biliary tract stone or sludge formation with obstruction of the common bile duct.
Acute hypersensitivity reactions including severe skin rashes requiring patient hospitalization and treatment with steroids have occurred very rarely during treatment with fenofibrate, including rare spontaneous reports of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Mild to moderate hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell decreases have been observed in patients following initiation of Trilipix and fenofibrate therapy. Extremely rare spontaneous reports of thrombocytopenia and agranulocytosis have been received with fenofibrate therapy.
Mortality and Coronary Heart Disease Morbidity
The effect of Trilipix on coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality and non-cardiovascular mortality has not been established. Because of similarities between Trilipix and fenofibrate, clofibrate, and gemfibrozil, the findings in the following large randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies with these fibrate drugs may also apply to Trilipix.
The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study was a 5-year randomized, placebo-controlled study of 9795 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with fenofibrate. Fenofibrate demonstrated a non-significant 11% relative reduction in the primary outcome of coronary heart disease events (hazard ratio [HR] 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.05, p = 0.16) and a significant 11% reduction in the secondary outcome of total cardiovascular disease events (HR 0.89 [0.80-0.99], p = 0.04). There was a non-significant 11% (HR 1.11 [0.95, 1.29], p = 0.18) and 19% (HR 1.19 [0.90, 1.57], p = 0.22) increase in total and coronary heart disease mortality, respectively, with fenofibrate as compared to placebo.
In the Coronary Drug Project, a large study of post-myocardial infarction patients treated for 5 years with clofibrate, there was no difference in mortality seen between the clofibrate group and the placebo group. There was, however, a difference in the rate of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis requiring surgery between the two groups (3.0% vs. 1.8%).
In a study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), 5000 subjects without known coronary artery disease were treated with placebo or clofibrate for 5 years and followed for an additional one year. There was a statistically significant, higher age-adjusted all-cause mortality in the clofibrate group compared with the placebo group (5.70% vs. 3.96%, p = < 0.01). Excess mortality was due to a 33% increase in non-cardiovascular causes, including malignancy, post-cholecystectomy complications, and pancreatitis. This appeared to confirm the higher risk of gallbladder disease seen in clofibrate-treated patients studied in the Coronary Drug Project.
The Helsinki Heart Study was a large (N = 4081) study of middle-aged men without a history of coronary artery disease. Subjects received either placebo or gemfibrozil for 5 years, with a 3.5 year open extension afterward. Total mortality was numerically higher in the gemfibrozil randomization group but did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.19, 95% confidence interval for relative risk G:P = 0.91-1.64). Although cancer deaths trended higher in the gemfibrozil group (p = 0.11), cancers (excluding basal cell carcinoma) were diagnosed with equal frequency in both study groups. Due to the limited size of the study, the relative risk of death from any cause was not shown to be different than that seen in the 9 year follow-up data from WHO study (RR = 1.29). A secondary prevention component of the Helsinki Heart Study enrolled middle-aged men excluded from the primary prevention study because of known or suspected coronary heart disease. Subjects received gemfibrozil or placebo for 5 years. Although cardiac deaths trended higher in the gemfibrozil group, this was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-5.05).
In the FIELD trial, pulmonary embolus (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were observed at higher rates in the fenofibrate- than the placebo-treated group. Of 9,795 patients enrolled in FIELD, there were 4,900 in the placebo group and 4,895 in the fenofibrate group. For DVT, there were 48 events (1%) in the placebo group and 67 (1%) in the fenofibrate group (p = 0.074); and for PE, there were 32 (0.7%) events in the placebo group and 53 (1%) in the fenofibrate group (p = 0.022).
In the Coronary Drug Project, a higher proportion of the clofibrate group experienced definite or suspected fatal or nonfatal PE or thrombophlebitis than the placebo group (5.2% vs. 3.3% at five years; p < 0.01).
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category: C
The safety of Trilipix in pregnant women has not been established. There are no adequate and well controlled studies of Trilipix in pregnant women. Trilipix should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
When Trilipix is administered with a statin in a woman of childbearing potential, refer to pregnancy category and product labeling for the statin [see Precautions, Pregnancy]. All statins are contraindicated in pregnant women.
In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 14, 127, and 361 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6-15 during the period of organogenesis, adverse developmental findings were not observed at 14 mg/kg/day (less than 1 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD], based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m2). At higher multiples of human doses evidence of maternal toxicity was observed.
In pregnant rabbits given oral gavage doses of 15, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6-18 during the period of organogenesis and allowed to deliver, aborted litters were observed at 150 mg/kg/day (10 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m2). No developmental findings were observed at 15 mg/kg/day (at less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m2).
In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 15, 75, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 15 through lactation day 21 (weaning), maternal toxicity was observed at less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m2.
Trilipix should not be used in nursing mothers. A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug.
The safety and effectiveness of Trilipix monotherapy or co-administration with a statin in pediatric patients have not been established.
Trilipix is substantially excreted by the kidney as fenofibric acid and fenofibric acid glucuronide, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Since elderly patients have a higher incidence of renal impairment, the dose selection for the elderly should be made on the basis of renal function [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ]. Consider monitoring renal function in elderly patients taking Trilipix.
The use of Trilipix should be avoided in patients who have severe renal impairment. Dose reduction is required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Monitoring renal function in patients with renal impairment is recommended.
The use of Trilipix has not been evaluated in subjects with hepatic impairment [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].