WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Pregnancy Category D
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Tekturna as soon as possible [see Use in Specific Populations].
Renal Impairment/Hyperkalemia/Hypotension when Tekturna is given in combination with ARBs or ACEIs
Tekturna is contraindicated in patients with diabetes who are receiving ARBs or ACEIs because of the increased risk of renal impairment, hyperkalemia, and hypotension [see Contraindications and Clinical Studies].
Avoid use of Tekturna with ARBs or ACEIs in patients with moderate renal impairment (GFR <60 ml/min).
Anaphylactic Reactions and Head and Neck Angioedema
Hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylactic reactions and angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx have been reported in patients treated with Tekturna and has necessitated hospitalization and intubation. This may occur at any time during treatment and has occurred in patients with and without a history of angioedema with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists. Anaphylactic reactions have been reported from post-marketing experience with unknown frequency. If angioedema involves the throat, tongue, glottis or larynx, or if the patient has a history of upper respiratory surgery, airway obstruction may occur and be fatal. Patients who experience these effects, even without respiratory distress, require prolonged observation and appropriate monitoring measures since treatment with antihistamines and corticosteroids may not be sufficient to prevent respiratory involvement. Prompt administration of subcutaneous epinephrine solution 1:1000 (0.3 to 0.5 ml) and measures to ensure a patent airway may be necessary.
Discontinue Tekturna immediately in patients who develop anaphylactic reactions or angioedema, and do not readminister.
Symptomatic hypotension may occur after initiation of treatment with Tekturna in patients with marked volume depletion, patients with salt depletion, or with combined use of aliskiren and other agents acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The volume or salt depletion should be corrected prior to administration of Tekturna, or the treatment should start under close medical supervision.
A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further treatment, which usually can be continued without difficulty once the blood pressure has stabilized.
Impaired Renal Function
Monitor renal function periodically in patients treated with Tekturna. Changes in renal function, including acute renal failure, can be caused by drugs that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Patients whose renal function may depend in part on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g., patients with renal artery stenosis, severe heart failure, post-myocardial infarction or volume depletion) or patients receiving ARB, ACEI or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) therapy may be at particular risk for developing acute renal failure on Tekturna [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions Clinical Studies]. Consider withholding or discontinuing therapy in patients who develop a clinically significant decrease in renal function.
Monitor serum potassium periodically in patients receiving Tekturna. Drugs that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system can cause hyperkalemia. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes, combination use with ARBs or ACEIs [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions and Clinical Studies], NSAIDs, or potassium supplements or potassium sparing diuretics.
Cyclosporine or Itraconazole
When aliskiren was given with cyclosporine or itraconazole, the blood concentrations of aliskiren were significantly increased. Avoid concomitant use of aliskiren with cyclosporine or itraconazole [see Drug Interactions].
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category D
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Tekturna as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus.
In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue Tekturna, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to Tekturna for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. [see Use in Specific Populations]
It is not known whether aliskiren is excreted in human breast milk. Aliskiren was secreted in the milk of lactating rats. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness of aliskiren in pediatric patients <18 years have not been established.
Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to Tekturna:
If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function.
Of the total number of patients receiving aliskiren in clinical studies, 1,275 (19%) were 65 years or older and 231 (3.4%) were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Safety and effectiveness of Tekturna in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCL <30 ml/min) have not been established as patients with eGFR <30ml/min were excluded in clinical trials [see Clinical Studies].