WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Serious Skin/Hypersensitivity Reactions
Cases of anaphylaxis and serious skin reactions including toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, and erythema multiforme have been reported in postmarketing experience with TAMIFLU. TAMIFLU should be stopped and appropriate treatment instituted if an allergic-like reaction occurs or is suspected.
Influenza can be associated with a variety of neurologic and behavioral symptoms that can include events such as hallucinations, delirium, and abnormal behavior, in some cases resulting in fatal outcomes. These events may occur in the setting of encephalitis or encephalopathy but can occur without obvious severe disease.
There have been postmarketing reports (mostly from Japan) of delirium and abnormal behavior leading to injury, and in some cases resulting in fatal outcomes, in patients with influenza who were receiving TAMIFLU. Because these events were reported voluntarily during clinical practice, estimates of frequency cannot be made but they appear to be uncommon based on TAMIFLU usage data. These events were reported primarily among pediatric patients and often had an abrupt onset and rapid resolution. The contribution of TAMIFLU to these events has not been established. Closely monitor patients with influenza for signs of abnormal behavior. If neuropsychiatric symptoms occur, evaluate the risks and benefits of continuing treatment for each patient.
Serious bacterial infections may begin with influenza-like symptoms or may coexist with or occur as complications during the course of influenza. TAMIFLU has not been shown to prevent such complications.
Limitations of Populations Studied
Efficacy of TAMIFLU in the treatment of influenza in patients with chronic cardiac disease and/or respiratory disease has not been established. No difference in the incidence of complications was observed between the treatment and placebo groups in this population. No information is available regarding treatment of influenza in patients with any medical condition sufficiently severe or unstable to be considered at imminent risk of requiring hospitalization.
Efficacy of TAMIFLU for treatment or prophylaxis of influenza has not been established in immunocompromised patients.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category C
There are insufficient human data upon which to base an evaluation of risk of TAMIFLU to the pregnant woman or developing fetus. Studies for effects on embryo-fetal development were conducted in rats (50, 250, and 1500 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (50, 150, and 500 mg/kg/day) by the oral route. Relative exposures at these doses were, respectively, 2, 13, and 100 times human exposure in the rat and 4, 8, and 50 times human exposure in the rabbit. Pharmacokinetic studies indicated that fetal exposure was seen in both species. In the rat study, minimal maternal toxicity was reported in the 1500 mg/kg/day group. In the rabbit study, slight and marked maternal toxicities were observed, respectively, in the 150 and 500 mg/kg/day groups. There was a dose-dependent increase in the incidence rates of a variety of minor skeletal abnormalities and variants in the exposed offspring in these studies. However, the individual incidence rate of each skeletal abnormality or variant remained within the background rates of occurrence in the species studied.
Because animal reproductive studies may not be predictive of human response and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women, TAMIFLU should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
In lactating rats, oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate are excreted in the milk. It is not known whether oseltamivir or oseltamivir carboxylate is excreted in human milk. TAMIFLU should, therefore, be used only if the potential benefit for the lactating mother justifies the potential risk to the breast-fed infant.
The safety and efficacy of TAMIFLU in pediatric patients younger than 1 year of age have not been studied. TAMIFLU is not indicated for either treatment or prophylaxis of influenza in pediatric patients younger than 1 year of age because of the unknown clinical significance of nonclinical animal toxicology data for human infants [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of TAMIFLU for the treatment of influenza, 19% were 65 and over, while 7% were 75 and over. Of the total number of patients in clinical studies of TAMIFLU for the prophylaxis of influenza, 25% were 65 and over, while 18% were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger subjects.
The safety of TAMIFLU in geriatric subjects has been established in clinical studies that enrolled 741 subjects (374 received placebo and 362 received TAMIFLU). Some seasonal variability was noted in the clinical efficacy outcomes [see Clinical Studies].
Safety and efficacy have been demonstrated in elderly residents of nursing homes who took TAMIFLU for up to 42 days for the prevention of influenza. Many of these individuals had cardiac and/or respiratory disease, and most had received vaccine that season [see Clinical Studies].
Dose adjustment is recommended for patients with a serum creatinine clearance between 10 and 30 mL/min [see Dosage and Administration and Clinical Pharmacology]. No recommended dosing regimens are available for patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing routine hemodialysis or continuous peritoneal dialysis treatment.
No dosage adjustment is required in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. The safety and pharmacokinetics in patients with severe hepatic impairment have not been evaluated [see Dosage and Administration and Clinical Pharmacology].