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Sulfatrim (Sulfamethoxazole / Trimethoprim) - Summary

 
 



SULFATRIM SUMMARY

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is a synthetic antibacterial combination product containing 200 mg sulfamethoxazole and 40 mg trimethoprim per 5 mL for oral administration.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension and other antibacterial drugs, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to empiric selection of therapy.

Urinary Tract Infections

For the treatment of urinary tract infections due to susceptible strains of the following organisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Enterobacter species, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris. It is recommended that initial episodes of uncomplicated urinary tract infections be treated with a single effective antibacterial agent rather than the combination.

Acute Otitis Media

For the treatment of acute otitis media in pediatric patients due to susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae when in the judgment of the physician sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim offers some advantage over the use of other antimicrobial agents. To date, there are limited data on the safety of repeated use of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pediatric patients under two years of age. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is not indicated for prophylactic or prolonged administration in otitis media at any age.

Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Adults

For the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae when in the judgment of the physician sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim offers some advantage over the use of a single antimicrobial agent.

Shigellosis

For the treatment of enteritis caused by susceptible strains of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei when antibacterial therapy is indicated.

P neumocystis Carinii Pneumonia

For the treatment of documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in individuals who are immunosuppressed and considered to be at an increased risk of developing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

Travelers' Diarrhea in Adults

For the treatment of travelers' diarrhea due to susceptible strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli.


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NEWS HIGHLIGHTS

Published Studies Related to Sulfatrim (Sulfamethoxazole / Trimethoprim)

Clindamycin versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for uncomplicated skin infections. [2015]
community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is unclear... CONCLUSIONS: We found no significant difference between clindamycin and TMP-SMX,

Itraconazole vs. trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: A comparative cohort study of 200 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. [2014]
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Brazil accounts for approximately 80% of cases, where it represents a major public health issue due to its disabling impact and the number of premature deaths it causes... Although the results of this study show that itraconazole was the best treatment option for PCM patients, a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial is necessary to confirm this conclusion.

Short- and long-term cure rates of short-duration trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment in female dogs with uncomplicated bacterial cystitis. [2014]
BACKGROUND: Long-duration beta-lactam antibiotics are used for empirical treatment in female dogs with uncomplicated bacterial cystitis. However, women with bacterial cystitis are treated with short-duration potentiated sulfonamides because longer courses of beta-lactams result in lower cure and higher recurrence rates...

Randomized controlled trial of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for uncomplicated skin abscesses in patients at risk for community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. [2010.09]
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is now the leading cause of uncomplicated skin abscesses in the United States, and the role of antibiotics is controversial. We evaluate whether trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole reduces the rate of treatment failures during the 7 days after incision and drainage and whether it reduces new lesion formation within 30 days... CONCLUSION: After the incision and drainage of uncomplicated abscesses in adults, treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole does not reduce treatment failure but may decrease the formation of subsequent lesions. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

Standard versus newer antibacterial agents in the treatment of severe acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus ciprofloxacin. [2010.07.15]
BACKGROUND. Although the use of antibiotics in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is largely accepted, controversy remains regarding whether the choice of antibiotic has any impact on outcome.

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Clinical Trials Related to Sulfatrim (Sulfamethoxazole / Trimethoprim)

Study to Test the Validity of the Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis With Cotrimoxazole [Recruiting]
First study to test the validity of the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which causes inflammation and fibrosis (scarring) of the lung tissue, with cotrimoxazole. Cotrimoxazole may improve the clinical course of the disease through eradication of Pneumocystis jiroveci colonization and other mechanisms as inhibiting the activation of alveolar macrophages and producing alterations in the surfactant system which favours the persistent activation of the inflammatory response and the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

Cotrimoxazole Versus Amoxicillin in the Treatment of Community Acquired Pneumonia in Children Aged 2-59 Months [Completed]
The investigators hypothesized that Oral amoxicillin (25mg/kg/dose bid) given to children aged 2-59 months with pneumonia, would lead to better clinical outcome on day three in 89. 9% of the children compared to 77. 0% of children receiving oral cotrimoxazole (8 mg/kg/dose trimethoprim, 40 mg/kg/dose sulphamethoxazole). A double blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Assessment Center of Mulago Hospital. Children with non-severe pneumonia were randomized to receive either oral amoxicillin (25 mg/kg/dose) or cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim 8 mg/kg and sulphamethoxazole 40 mg/kg) and followed up on day 3 and 5 of treatment. The primary outcome measures were normalization of respiratory rate by day 3 of treatment. Secondary outcome measures were antimicrobial susceptibility to cotrimoxazole and amoxicillin.

Safety of Cotrimoxazole in HIV- and HAART-exposed Infants [Completed]

PK of Clindamycin and Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Infants and Children [Not yet recruiting]
Developmental changes in physiology during childhood influence drug dosing. Failure to account for these changes leads to improper dosing, which is associated with decreased drug efficacy and safety in children. Population physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling offers the opportunity to predict optimal drug dosing based on physiologic parameters adjusted for developmental changes. PBPK models are mathematical constructs that incorporate physiologic processes with drug characteristics and genetic variances to characterize the dose-exposure relationship across the age continuum. These models integrate drug-specific (e. g., metabolism, protein binding) and systems-specific (e. g., organ size, blood flow) information to predict the effect of different factors (e. g., age, genetic variants, disease) on drug exposure. By accounting for these factors and using data from clinical trials to confirm the modeling, PBPK models can reduce the number of children needed for clinical trials while maximizing dose-based efficacy and safety. This trial will evaluate a platform to prospectively validate population PBPK models in children. The study drugs, clindamycin and Bactrim (aka TMP-SMX), are ideal candidates to evaluate population PBPK models in children due to their differing physico-chemical properties and elimination pathways. In addition, a trial of clindamycin and TMP-SMX has broad clinical applicability, as both drugs are among the most commonly used agents to treat gram-positive infections in infants and children.

Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis in Severely Malnourished Children [Completed]
This trial aims to test the hypothesis that mortality among Kenyan children with severe malnutrition following initial stabilisation is due to ongoing vulnerability to infectious disease, and that long term daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis will reduce mortality. The objective is to conduct a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for 6 months among HIV-uninfected children with severe malnutrition following stabilization. The primary outcome will be survival at one year. Secondary outcomes are toxicity, growth, the frequency and causes of hospitalisation and microbial resistance to antibiotics. Cotrimoxazole has striking protective efficacy against mortality among children with HIV, despite not altering the underlying immune deficiency. It is hypothesised that co-trimoxazole prophylaxis will have a similar effect in children immunocompromised because of severe malnutrition. Worldwide, severe malnutrition is commoner than HIV in childhood and co-trimoxazole is cheap and widely available, making it easily translatable to policy.

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Page last updated: 2015-08-10

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