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Sulfadiazine (Sulfadiazine) - Summary



Sulfadiazine is an oral sulfonamide anti-bacterial agent. Each tablet, for oral administration, contains 500 mg sulfadiazine.

Sulfadiazine tablets are indicated in the following conditions:



Inclusion conjunctivitis


Urinary tract infections (primarily pyelonephritis, pyelitis, and cystitis) in the absence of obstructive uropathy or foreign bodies, when these infections are caused by susceptible strains of the following organisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Enterobacter species, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and P. vulgaris. Sulfadiazine should be used for urinary tract infections only after use of more soluble sulfonamides has been unsuccessful.

Toxoplasmosis encephalitis in patients with and without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, as adjunctive therapy with pyrimethamine.

Malaria due to chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, when used as adjunctive therapy.

Prophylaxis of meningococcal meningitis when sul fonamide-sensitive group A strains are known to prevail in family groups or larger closed populations (the prophylactic usefulness of sulfonamides when group B or C infections are prevalent is not proved and may be harmful in closed population groups).

Meningococcal meningitis, when the organism has been demonstrated to be susceptible.

Acute otitis media due to Haemophilus influenzae, when used concomitantly with adequate doses of penicillin.

Prophylaxis against recurrences of rheumatic fever, as an alternative to penicillin.

H. influenzae meningitis, as adjunctive therapy with parental streptomycin.


In vitro sulfonamide susceptibility tests are not always reliable. The test must be carefully coordinated with bacteriologic and clinical response. When the patient is already taking sulfonamides, follow-up cultures should have aminobenzoic acid added to the culture media.

Currently, the increasing frequency of resistant organisms limits the usefulness of antibacterial agents, including the sulfonamides, especially in the treatment of recurrent and complicated urinary tract infections.

Wide variation in blood levels may result with identical doses. Blood levels should be measured in patients receiving sulfonamides for serious infections. Free sulfonamide blood levels of 5 to 15 mg per 100 mL may be considered therapeutically effective for most infections, and blood levels of 12 to 15 mg per 100 mL may be considered optimal for serious infections. Twenty mg per 100 mL should be the maximum total sulfonamide level, since adverse reactions occur more frequently above this level.

See all Sulfadiazine indications & dosage >>


Published Studies Related to Sulfadiazine

Topical silver sulfadiazine for the prevention of acute dermatitis during irradiation for breast cancer. [2011.10.19]
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of topical silver sulfadiazine (SSD) in preventing acute radiation dermatitis in women receiving radiotherapy for breast cancer... CONCLUSIONS: SSD cream reduced the severity of radiation-induced skin injury compared with general skin care alone. Further studies in patients with other types of cancer and also comparing SSD cream with other topical agents are warranted.

Randomized controlled single center study comparing a polyhexanide containing bio-cellulose dressing with silver sulfadiazine cream in partial-thickness dermal burns. [2011.08]
OBJECTIVE: A prospective, randomized, controlled single center study was designed to evaluate clinical efficacy of a polyhexanide containing bio-cellulose dressing (group B) compared to a silver-sulfadiazine cream (group A) in sixty partial-thickness burn patients... CONCLUSION: Group B demonstrated a better and faster pain reduction in the treated partial-thickness burns, compared to group A. The results indicate the polyhexanide containing bio-cellulose dressing to be a safe and cost effective treatment for partial-thickness burns. Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

Prevalence of pin-site infection: the comparison between silver sulfadiazine and dry dressing among open tibial fracture patients. [2011.05]
CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in prevalence of pin-site infection between both groups (p = 0.97). Therefore, either silver sulfadiazine or dry dressing could be advocated.

The efficacy of silver mesh dressing compared with silver sulfadiazine cream for the treatment of pressure ulcers. [2011.05]
CONCLUSION: Silver mesh dressings is one of the choices for pressure ulcer treatment with good healing rate, minimal care and lower overall cost.

Comparisons of the effects of biological membrane (amnion) and silver sulfadiazine in the management of burn wounds in children. [2011.03]
This prospective study was conducted on 102 children with second-degree thermal burns to assess qualitative differences between topical silver sulfadiazine (SD) and oven-dried, radiation-sterilized human amnion as wound dressing. The patients were divided into silver SD and amniotic membrane (AM) group by random sampling technique...

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Clinical Trials Related to Sulfadiazine

Prevention of Congenital Toxoplasmosis With Pyrimethamine + Sulfadiazine Versus Spiramycine During Pregnancy [Recruiting]
Background : When a mother contracts toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, the parasite may be transmitted from to her unborn child. This results in congenital toxoplasmosis, which may cause damage to the eyes and nervous system of the child. To date, no method has been proved effective to prevent this transmission. In France, spiramycin is usually prescribed to women who have toxoplasma seroconversion in pregnancy, however its efficacy has not been determined. The standard treatment for toxoplasmosis is the combination of the antiparasitic drugs pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, but this strategy has not been evaluated for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Purpose : Randomized phase 3 trial to determine whether pyrimethamine + sulfadiazine is more effective than spiramycin to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis.

Effect of EGF With Silver Sulfadiazine Cream Compared With Silver Zinc Sulfadiazine Cream for Treatment of Burn Wound [Completed]
Partial thickness burn wounds are most likely to heal within 2-3 weeks mainly by mechanism of epithelialization. However, it depends on the depth of the wounds and patient condition. Infection is one of the most common complications causing delay in wound healing which might affect to quality of patient's life. Generally, the standard treatment of partial thickness burn wound is topical 1% silver sulfadiazine cream. Previous studies had been reported the broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of silver sulfadiazine cream but it did not demonstrate the accelerating effect of wound healing. Therefore, the combination of substance which can promote wound healing to topical silver sulfadiazine cream might benefit for partial thickness burn wound treatment. The objective of this study was to compare the results of partial thickness burn wound treatment at burn unit, Siriraj hospital with topical cream containing 1% silver sulfadiazine plus 6% epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 1% silver zinc sulfadiazine. The demographic data (age, sex, %body surface area burn), time of wound closure, pain and itching, dose and type of pain and itching medication, adverse effect of topical medication, some laboratory results and cost of expenses. This is the prospective, double blinded, randomize-controlled study. The sample sizes were partial thickness burn wound patients who were treated at burn unit, Siriraj hospital. Patients were allocated into 2 groups receiving treatment with either topical silver sulfadiazine plus EGF or silver zinc sulfadiazine. All parameter data were analyzed with repeated measure ANOVA and independent t-test.

Comparison of a Water-soluble Topical Antimicrobial to Silver Sulfadiazine in Partial Thickness Burns [Completed]
Partial thickness burns are a common, painful injury requiring a great deal of resources in their care. Silver sulfadizine is a commonly-used topical antimicrobial, but is difficult to remove due to its lipid base. We are comparing a water-based topical antimicrobial therapy to silver sulfadiazine and hypothesize that the water-based therapy is superior in terms of pain control and resources required to deliver care.

A Trial Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Open Dressing With Petrolatum Jelly vs. Standard Gauze Dressing With Silver Sulfadiazine [Completed]
The Effectiveness of open dressing with petrolatum jelly in minor burns has not been clearly established. This study determined if the use of open dressings with petrolatum jelly as effective as standard gauze dressing with silver sulfadiazine in treating minor burns in terms of time-to-re-epithelialization, incidence of wound infection,incidence of adverse reactions, and patient acceptance. Non-extensive superficial partial thickness burns constitute a major proportion of burn injuries. Conventional treatment involves regular changing of absorptive dressings including the application of a topical antimicrobial, commonly silver sulfadiazine. A systematic review has found insufficient evidence to support or refute such antimicrobial prophylaxis. Another review compared silver sulfadiazine dressings with other occlusive and non-antimicrobial dressings and found insufficient evidence to guide practice. Other research has suggested that dressings with petrolatum gel are as effective as silver sulfadiazine. This trial sought to compare the effectiveness of conventional silver sulfadiazine dressings with treatment with petrolatum gel alone.

Phase II Randomized Open-Label Trial of Atovaquone Plus Pyrimethamine and Atovaquone Plus Sulfadiazine for the Treatment of Acute Toxoplasmic Encephalitis [Completed]
To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerance of atovaquone with either pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine in AIDS patients with toxoplasmic encephalitis. AIDS patients with toxoplasmic encephalitis who receive the standard therapy combination of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine experience a high frequency of severe toxicity. Atovaquone, an antibiotic that has demonstrated efficacy against toxoplasmosis in animal models and in preclinical testing has been well tolerated, is now available as a suspension, which is more readily absorbed than the tablet form of the drug. The efficacy and safety of atovaquone in combination with sulfadiazine or pyrimethamine will be studied.

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Reports of Suspected Sulfadiazine Side Effects

Fall (10)Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (10)Drug Rash With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (10)Hyperhidrosis (9)Loss of Consciousness (9)Gastric Ulcer Haemorrhage (9)Drug Hypersensitivity (6)Renal Failure (6)Cytolytic Hepatitis (5)Myocarditis (4)more >>

Page last updated: 2011-12-09

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