ClomiPHENE citrate is an orally administered, nonsteroidal, ovulatory stimulant designated chemically as 2-[p-(2-chloro-1,2-diphenylvinyl)phenoxy] triethylamine citrate (1:1).
Serophene® (clomiPHENE citrate tablets USP) is indicated for the treatment of ovulatory dysfunction in women desiring pregnancy. Impediments to achieving pregnancy must be excluded or adequately treated before beginning clomiPHENE citrate therapy. Those patients most likely to achieve success with clomiPHENE therapy include patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (see WARNINGS: Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome), amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, psychogenic amenorrhea, post-oral-contraceptive amenorrhea, and certain cases of secondary amenorrhea of undetermined etiology.
Properly timed coitus in relationship to ovulation is important. A basal body temperature graph or other appropriate tests may help the patient and her physician determine if ovulation occurred. Once ovulation has been established, each course of clomiPHENE citrate therapy should be started on or about the 5th day of the cycle. Long-term cyclic therapy is not recommended beyond a total of about six cycles (including three ovulatory cycles). (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and PRECAUTIONS.)
Serophene® (clomiPHENE citrate tablets USP) is indicated only in patients with demonstrated ovulatory dysfunction who meet the conditions described below (see CONTRAINDICATIONS):
Patients who are not pregnant.
Patients without ovarian cysts. ClomiPHENE citrate should not be used in patients with ovarian enlargement except in those with polycystic ovary syndrome. Pelvic examination is necessary prior to the first and each subsequent course of clomiPHENE citrate treatment.
Patients without abnormal vaginal bleeding. If abnormal vaginal bleeding is present, the patient should be carefully evaluated to ensure that neoplastic lesions are not present.
Patients with normal liver function.
In addition, patients selected for clomiPHENE citrate therapy should be evaluated in regard to the following:
Estrogen Levels. Patients should have adequate levels of endogenous estrogen (as estimated from vaginal smears, endometrial biopsy, assay of urinary estrogen, or from bleeding in response to progesterone). Reduced estrogen levels, while less favorable, do not preclude successful therapy.
Primary Pituitary or Ovarian Failure. ClomiPHENE citrate therapy cannot be expected to substitute for specific treatment of other causes of ovulatory failure.
Endometriosis and Endometrial Carcinoma. The incidence of endometriosis and endometrial carcinoma increases with age as does the incidence of ovulatory disorders. Endometrial biopsy should always be performed prior to clomiPHENE citrate therapy in this population.
Other Impediments to Pregnancy. Impediments to pregnancy can include thyroid disorders, adrenal disorders, hyperprolactinemia, and male factor infertility.
Uterine Fibroids. Caution should be exercised when using clomiPHENE citrate in patients with uterine fibroids due to the potential for further enlargement of the fibroids.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of clomiPHENE citrate in the treatment of male infertility. In addition, testicular tumors and gynecomastia have been reported in males using clomiPHENE. The cause and effect relationship between reports of testicular tumors and the administration of clomiPHENE citrate is not known.
Although the medical literature suggests various methods, there is no universally accepted standard regimen for combined therapy (i.e., clomiPHENE citrate in conjunction with other ovulation-inducing drugs). Similarly, there is no standard clomiPHENE citrate regimen for ovulation induction in in vitro fertilization programs to produce ova for fertilization and reintroduction. Therefore, Serophene® is not recommended for these uses.
Published Studies Related to Serophene (Clomiphene)
Clomiphene citrate versus tamoxifen for ovulation induction in women with PCOS: a prospective randomized trial. [2011.11]
OBJECTIVE: To reevaluate the efficacy of induction of ovulation with CC versus TMX in a group of anovulatory subfertile women with PCOS in a randomized controlled trial... CONCLUSIONS: Clomiphene citrate is more successful than tamoxifen as a first line therapy for ovulation induction in women with PCOS. Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy after clomiphene failure in polycystic ovary syndrome: is it worthwhile? A randomized controlled trial. [2011.11]
PURPOSE: Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) represents a successful treatment option for women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, in case of CC failure PCOS, LOD offers several theoretical advantages. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of LOD versus continuation of CC up to six further cycles in PCOS patients who failed to achieve pregnancy despite the previous successful CC induced ovulation... CONCLUSIONS: LOD during the 6 months follow-up period and CC for up to six further cycles are equally effective for achieving pregnancy in CC failure PCOS patients.
A randomized controlled trial of the effect of rosiglitazone and clomiphene citrate versus clomiphene citrate alone in overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. [2011.10.04]
Background: In women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome, correction of hyperinsulinemia results in enhanced responsiveness to ovulation induction agents. The effect of rosiglitazone was investigated on ovulation induction in obese women with PCOS... Conclusions: Short term administration of rosiglitazone to overweight and obese PCOS women results in enhancement of CC induced ovulation as well as improvement of insulin sensitivity.
Clomiphene citrate versus letrozole: molecular analysis of the endometrium in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. [2011.10]
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of clomiphene citrate (CC) and letrozole on endometrial receptivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
Prospective, randomized comparison between raloxifene and clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome. [2011.09]
OBJECTIVE: To compare the ovulation rate between raloxifene and clomiphene citrate (CC) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
Clinical Trials Related to Serophene (Clomiphene)
Influence of Pharmacogenetic Factors, Paroxetine and Clarithromycin on Pharmacokinetics of Clomiphene [Recruiting]
Comparison of Clomiphene Citrate and Gonadotropins in Ovulation Induction Cycles [Recruiting]
The purpose of the present study is to analyse prospectively if highly purified hMG compared
with increased dose of clomiphene citrate has different outcomes in folliculogenesis in
ovulation induction cycles.
Tamoxifen Compared With Clomiphene Citrate for Women Who Had Thin Endometrium Women Under Clomiphene in a Previous Cycle [Recruiting]
About 10-15% of all couples attempting to conceive will not become pregnant within one year.
Among those, the majority will have ovulatory dysfunction, mild male infertility or
unexplained infertility. The traditional first line therapy for those couples is ovulation
induction or superovulation using clomiphene citrate. Probably due to anti-estrogenic
effects of this agent will, some patients will have a thin endometrium as measured by
sonography at the time of ovulation. This phenomenon may be associated with a lower chance
to conceive. Tamoxifen is a similar molecule that has been used to clomiphene citrate that
has been shown to be equally effective to clomiphene in ovulation induction. Preliminary
observations showed that tamoxifen does not cause a negative effect on the endometrium as
compared with clomiphene, and may increase the chance to conceive in those patients who have
a thin endometrium under clomiphene.
Clomiphene Citrate (CC) Co-treatment With HP Urinary FSH vs HP Urinary FSH in CC-resistant PCOS [Recruiting]
To test whether adding small doses of HP urinary FSH to standard regimen of clomiphene
citrate in clomiphene resistant PCOS well yield better results in terms of better
ovulation rate,lower follicle number, less consumption of HP urinary FSH,lower treatment
cost , better pregnancy rate, lower multiple pregnancy rates compared with the exclusive use
of HP urinary FSH in these cases.
Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II [Recruiting]
The primary research hypothesis is that ovulation induction with an aromatase inhibitor
(letrozole) is more likely to result in live birth than ovulation induction with a selective
estrogen receptor modulator (clomiphene citrate) in infertile women with PCOS. A safety
hypothesis will also be incorporated into the primary research hypothesis in which we
hypothesize both treatments are equally safe for mother and child.
Secondary research hypotheses include:
1. Treatment with letrozole is more likely to result in singleton pregnancy compared to
treatment with clomiphene citrate. Singleton pregnancy is defined as presence of a
single intrauterine gestational sac with a single fetal pole and observable heart
2. Treatment with letrozole will less likely result in a first trimester intrauterine
fetal demise than treatment with clomiphene citrate. A first trimester IUFD is defined
as a pregnancy that ends before 13 weeks gestation.
3. Treatment with letrozole is more likely to result in ovulation (increased ovulation
rate) compared to treatment with clomiphene citrate. Ovulation is defined as a
midluteal progesterone level ≥ 3 ng/mL.
4. The shortest time to pregnancy will be with letrozole.
5. Age, body mass index, SHBG, testosterone, LH, Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH), and degree
of hirsutism and acne will be significant predictors of ovulation and conception
regardless of treatment.
6. Improvement in SHBG, testosterone, AMH, and LH levels will be significant predictors of
ovulation and conception regardless of treatment.
7. DNA polymorphisms in estrogen action genes will predict response to study drug.
8. Quality of Life will be better on letrozole than clomiphene.
9. Letrozole will be more cost effective at achieving singleton pregnancies than
Reports of Suspected Serophene (Clomiphene) Side Effects
Foetal Exposure During Pregnancy (2),
Potter's Syndrome (2),
Drug Ineffective (1),
Abortion Spontaneous (1),
Abdominal Discomfort (1),
Oestrogen Receptor Assay Positive (1),
Intracranial Meningioma Malignant (1),
Nausea (1), more >>
Page last updated: 2011-12-09