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Seromycin (Cycloserine) - Summary

 
 



SEROMYCIN SUMMARY

Seromycin(Cycloserine Capsules, USP), 3-isoxazolidinone, 4-amino, (R)is a broadspectrum antibiotic that is produced by a strain of Streptomyces orchidaceus and has also been synthesized. Cycloserine is a white to offwhite powder that is soluble in water and stable in alkaline solution. It is rapidly destroyed at a neutral or acid pH.
Cycloserine has a pH between 5.5 and 6.5 in a solution containing 100 mg/mL.

Seromycin is indicated in the treatment of active pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (including renal disease) when the causative organisms are susceptible to this drug and when treatment with the primary medications (streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol) has proved inadequate. Like all antituberculosis drugs, Seromycin should be administered in conjunction with other effective chemotherapy and not as the sole therapeutic agent.
Seromycin may be effective in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of grampositive and gramnegative bacteria, especially Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli. It is generally no more and is usually less effective than other antimicrobial agents in the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by bacteria other than mycobacteria. Use of Seromycin in these infections should be considered only when more conventional therapy has failed and when the organism has been demonstrated to be susceptible to the drug.


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NEWS HIGHLIGHTS

Published Studies Related to Seromycin (Cycloserine)

A novel treatment for tinnitus and tinnitus-related cognitive difficulties using computer-based cognitive training and D-cycloserine. [2015]
IMPORTANCE: Tinnitus affects more than 40 million people in the Unites States, and cognitive difficulties are among the most commonly associated symptoms...

Cognitive-behavioural therapy with post-session D-cycloserine augmentation for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: pilot randomised controlled trial. [2014]
A partial N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist, D-cycloserine, enhances fear extinction when given before or shortly after exposure to feared stimuli in animals. In this pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial (trial number: ISRCTN70977225), 27 youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder were randomised to either 50 mg D-cycloserine or placebo administered immediately after each of ten cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) sessions, primarily consisting of exposure and ritual prevention...

D-cycloserine enhancement of exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder depends on the success of exposure sessions. [2013]
CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of DCS for augmenting exposure-based CBT depends on the

D-cycloserine enhancement of fear extinction is specific to successful exposure sessions: evidence from the treatment of height phobia. [2013]
of response to the exposure session (i.e., exposure success)... CONCLUSIONS: D-cycloserine appears to enhance the benefits of exposure treatment

Effects of D-cycloserine on cue-induced craving and cigarette smoking among concurrent cocaine- and nicotine-dependent volunteers. [2013]
Rates of cigarette smoking are 3- to 4-fold greater among those with cocaine-dependence, and compared to non-users, cocaine users are at greater risk of incurring smoking-related negative health effects and death. The current study examined D-cycloserine's (0 or 50mg once weekly) effects on 1) extinction of cue-induced craving for cigarettes, 2) cigarette smoking in conjunction with cognitive-behavioral therapy, and 3) safety and tolerability in cocaine-dependent smokers...

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Clinical Trials Related to Seromycin (Cycloserine)

Investigation of Cycloserine as a Smoking Cessation Treatment [Completed]
Psychosocial treatments for drug abuse benefit some patients (Rawson et al 2004), but there is an urgent need for new treatment approaches that can improve treatment outcomes. One new approach involves facilitation of extinction of conditioned responses through the use of d-cycloserine, a partial agonist at the NMDA glycine site. This approach has proved useful for the treatment of several anxiety disorders. For example, treatment with d-cycloserine enhanced the efficacy of behavioral treatments for acrophobia (Ressler et al 2004) and social phobia (Hofmann et al 2006) by enhancing extinction of conditioned fear responses. This suggests that d-cycloserine has potential to enhance the efficacy of behavioral treatments for drug dependence by enhancing extinction of conditioned responses to drug cues. In this Phase I Cutting-Edge Basic Research Awards (CEBRA) application we propose a proof-of-concept study to examine effects of treatment with d-cycloserine for facilitating extinction of craving provoked by exposure to cigarette smoking cues. The benefits of this treatment approach together with cognitive behavioral treatment for reducing cigarette smoking will then be determined. Smoking cues will be presented using an established virtual reality simulator(Bordnick et al 2004; Bordnick et al 2005a)

Once Weekly D-cycloserine for Schizophrenia [Withdrawn]
This is a parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial examining the cognitive effects at weeks 1, 4, & 8 of once-weekly oral D-cycloserine 50 mg added to a stable dose of antipsychotic for 8 weeks in adult outpatients with schizophrenia.

The Effects of D-cycloserine on Stimulus Generalization of Conditioned Fear Healthy Controls. [Enrolling by invitation]
PROJECT SUMMARY: PTSD is a debilitating psychiatric condition precipitated by exposure to extreme, or life threatening, trauma with an estimated lifetime prevalence between 8% and 9% in U. S. adults. One core symptom of PTSD is intense psychological distress in the presence of stimuli that "resemble" one or more aspects of the trauma experience (DSM-IV). This phenomenon referred to as stimulus generalization has received surprisingly little empirical testing in the context of clinical anxiety in general, and PTSD more specifically. The current proposal represents the first effort to study the neurobiology and pharmacology of this PTSD-relevant learning phenomenon across those with and without PTSD. The objective of this particular proposal is to apply fMRI and pharmacologic methods to: 1) identify brain mechanisms associated with generalization of conditioned fear and 2) examine the pharmacologic modifiability of levels of generalization using a partial agonist at the NMDA receptor complex (D-cycloserine) shown to increase discrimination of CS+ (danger cue) and CS- (safety cue) in animal studies.

Using D-cycloserine to Enhance the Benefits of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Schizophrenia [Completed]
This study will examine whether pretreatment with D-cycloserine before cognitive behavioral therapy can reduce impairments still present in people with stable cases of schizophrenia as well as determine which traits make schizophrenics most likely to respond to D-cycloserine treatment.

The Effect of Cycloserine on Smoking Behavior in Nicotine Dependent Smokers [Completed]
A total of 20 subjects will participate in this four week, between groups, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Subjects will participate in two experimental sessions separated by approximately one week. Subjects will be randomized to receive either 50 mg cycloserine or placebo combined with cue exposure. Several physiological and subjective outcome measures (e. g., heart rate, blood pressure, galvanic skin response) will be obtained during the sessions. Experimental sessions will last approximately 4. 5 hours with follow-up sessions lasting approximately thirty minutes. Our aims are: 1. To examine the effect of cycloserine vs. placebo on extinction of smoking cue reactivity in overnight abstinent smokers. Reactivity to smoking cues will be captured with self-report smoking urges and physiological measures (heart rate, blood pressure, and skin conductance). We hypothesize that cycloserine, relative to placebo, will facilitate extinction of smoking cue reactivity. 2. To examine the effect of cycloserine vs. placebo when combined with two 4. 5 hour laboratory cue exposure training sessions, on smoking behavior in smokers. Smoking behavior will be measured with self-report smoking and saliva cotinine levels. 3. To examine the effect of cycloserine vs. placebo on memory performance in nicotine dependent smokers. Memory performance will be measured with verbal learning, recognition and recall tasks. 4) To examine the safety and tolerability of cycloserine treatment in smokers. We hypothesize that cycloserine will be well tolerated by smokers.

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Page last updated: 2015-08-10

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