RETROVIR (ZIDOVUDINE) HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH HEMATOLOGIC TOXICITY, INCLUDING NEUTROPENIA AND SEVERE ANEMIA, PARTICULARLY IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) DISEASE (SEE WARNINGS). PROLONGED USE OF RETROVIR HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH SYMPTOMATIC MYOPATHY.
LACTIC ACIDOSIS AND SEVERE HEPATOMEGALY WITH STEATOSIS, INCLUDING FATAL CASES, HAVE BEEN REPORTED WITH THE USE OF NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUES ALONE OR IN COMBINATION, INCLUDING RETROVIR AND OTHER ANTIRETROVIRALS (SEE WARNINGS).
RETROVIR is the brand name for zidovudine (formerly called azidothymidine [AZT]), a pyrimidine nucleoside analogue active against HIV. RETROVIR IV Infusion is a sterile solution for intravenous infusion only. Each mL contains 10 mg zidovudine in Water for Injection. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added to adjust the pH to approximately 5.5. RETROVIR IV Infusion contains no preservatives.
RETROVIR IV Infusion in combination with other antiretroviral agents is indicated for the treatment of HIV infection.
Maternal-Fetal HIV Transmission:
RETROVIR is also indicated for the prevention of maternal-fetal HIV transmission as part of a regimen that includes oral RETROVIR beginning between 14 and 34 weeks of gestation, intravenous RETROVIR during labor, and administration of RETROVIR Syrup to the neonate after birth. The efficacy of this regimen for preventing HIV transmission in women who have received RETROVIR for a prolonged period before pregnancy has not been evaluated. The safety of RETROVIR for the mother or fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy has not been assessed (see Description of Clinical Studies).
Description of Clinical Studies:
Therapy with RETROVIR has been shown to prolong survival and decrease the incidence of opportunistic infections in subjects with advanced HIV disease at the initiation of therapy and to delay disease progression in asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects.
RETROVIR in combination with other antiretroviral agents has been shown to be superior to monotherapy in one or more of the following endpoints: delaying death, delaying development of AIDS, increasing CD4+ cell counts, and decreasing plasma HIV-1 RNA. The complete prescribing information for each drug should be consulted before combination therapy that includes RETROVIR is initiated.
Pregnant Women and Their Neonates:
The utility of RETROVIR for the prevention of maternal-fetal HIV transmission was demonstrated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ACTG 076) conducted in HIV-infected pregnant women with CD4+ cell counts of 200 to 1,818 cells/mm3 (median in the treated group: 560 cells/mm3) who had little or no previous exposure to RETROVIR. Oral RETROVIR was initiated between 14 and 34 weeks of gestation (median 11 weeks of therapy) followed by intravenous administration of RETROVIR during labor and delivery. Following birth, neonates received oral RETROVIR Syrup for 6 weeks. The trial showed a statistically significant difference in the incidence of HIV infection in the neonates (based on viral culture from peripheral blood) between the group receiving RETROVIR and the group receiving placebo. Of 363 neonates evaluated in the trial, the estimated risk of HIV infection was 7.8% in the group receiving RETROVIR and 24.9% in the placebo group, a relative reduction in transmission risk of 68.7%. RETROVIR was well tolerated by mothers and infants. There was no difference in pregnancy-related adverse events between the treatment groups.
Media Articles Related to Retrovir (Zidovudine)
Kicking latent HIV: New strategies to reactivate reservoirs of latent infection
Source: HIV / AIDS News From Medical News Today [2015.07.31]
In cells with latent HIV infection, the virus is dormant, and such cells are therefore not attacked by the immune system or by standard antiretroviral therapy.
NYU researchers dramatically improve ART adherence for minority PHLA
Source: Compliance News From Medical News Today [2015.04.07]
Novel behavioral intervention improves treatment outcomes for HIV-infected individuals who have previously delayed, declined, or discontinued antiretroviral therapyUp to 60% of persons living...
Financial incentives show no overall effect on viral suppression: may influence control of HIV in some clinical settings
Source: Compliance News From Medical News Today [2015.02.27]
A new study by The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) shows that financial incentives did not have an overall effect on motivating HIV-positive patients to take their HIV antiretroviral therapy...
Published Studies Related to Retrovir (Zidovudine)
A randomized trial of punctuated antiretroviral therapy in Ugandan HIV-seropositive adults with pulmonary tuberculosis and CD4 T-cell counts of >/= 350 cells/muL. [2011.09.15]
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis in patients with high CD4 T-cell counts is unknown. Suppression of viral replication during therapy for tuberculosis may block effects of immune activation on T cells and slow HIV disease progression... CONCLUSIONS: Short-term antiretroviral therapy during tuberculosis treatment in patients with CD4T-cell counts of >350 cells/muL was safe and associated with clinical benefits.
Postexposure prophylaxis of breastfeeding HIV-exposed infants with antiretroviral drugs to age 14 weeks: updated efficacy results of the PEPI-Malawi trial. [2011.08.01]
BACKGROUND: This analysis updates and extends efficacy estimates of the PEPI-Malawi trial through age 24 months at study completion in September 2009... CONCLUSIONS: Daily infant antiretroviral prophylaxis reduces postnatal HIV infection by ~70% during the period of prophylaxis. But continued HIV transmission after prophylaxis stops suggests more prolonged infant prophylaxis is needed.
Timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)--associated tuberculous meningitis. [2011.06]
BACKGROUND: The optimal time to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculous meningitis is unknown... CONCLUSIONS: Immediate ART initiation does not improve outcome in patients presenting with HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis. There were significantly more grade 4 adverse events in the immediate ART arm, supporting delayed initiation of ART in HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN63659091.
Beliefs about antiretroviral therapy, treatment adherence and quality of life in a 48-week randomised study of continuation of zidovudine/lamivudine or switch to tenofovir DF/emtricitabine, each with efavirenz. [2011.06]
Adherence may be facilitated by reducing perceptual and practical barriers to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Practical barriers include the complexity of daily dosing, while perceptual barriers include perceptions of the need for treatment and concerns about adverse effects... Switching from CBV to TVD may improve patient reported outcomes including slightly better adherence, a greater reduction in concerns about adverse effects and less treatment intrusiveness.
Challenges in PMTCT antiretroviral adherence in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. [2011.06]
BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa face significant challenges in accessing HIV care and adhering to antiretroviral therapy. Most reports have focused on issues relating to long-term adherence such as those surrounding stigma and disclosure, hunger, cultural factors, lack of accurate health information, lack of social support, medication side effects and overcrowded health systems. Information related to the challenges facing pregnant women when taking antiretrovirals for prophylactic purposes is limited. The "Kesho Bora Study" is a multicentre prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) trial in sub-Saharan Africa evaluating the PMTCT efficacy of triple therapy until cessation of breast feeding compared to short course zidovudine monotherapy in a predominantly breast feeding population. Following unexplained discrepancies during objective adherence assessments, a sub-study was conducted at one site to examine the underlying adherence issues... CONCLUSION: Antenatal women in northern rural KwaZulu-Natal face significant challenges in taking antiretroviral PMTCT prophylaxis.
Clinical Trials Related to Retrovir (Zidovudine)
Trial of Maraviroc (UK-427,857) in Combination With Zidovudine/Lamivudine Versus Efavirenz in Combination With Zidovudine/Lamivudine [Active, not recruiting]
Maraviroc (UK-427,857), a selective and reversible CCR5 coreceptor antagonist, has been shown
to be active in vitro against a wide range of clinical isolates (including those resistant to
existing classes). In HIV-1 infected patients, maraviroc (UK-427,857) given as monotherapy
for 10 days reduced HIV-1 viral load by up to 1. 6 log, consistent with currently available
agents. Safety and toleration have been studied in over 400 subjects for up to 28 days at
300 mg twice daily. No significant effects were seen on the QTc interval. The goal of this
study is to compare the safety and efficacy of maraviroc (UK-427,857) versus efavirenz, when
each are combined with two other antiretroviral agents, in patients who are previously naive
to antiretroviral therapy. This study will involve approximately 200 centers from around the
world to achieve a total randomized subject population of 1071 subjects. Patients will be
randomly assigned to one of three groups: maraviroc (UK-427,857) 300 mg once daily added to
zidovudine/lamivudine (300 mg/150 mg twice daily), Maraviroc (UK-427,857) 300 mg twice daily
added to zidovudine/lamivudine (300 mg/150 mg twice daily) or efavirenz (600 mg once daily)
added to zidovudine/lamivudine (300 mg/150 mg twice daily). The study will enroll over
approximately an 18 month period (5 months Phase 2b run-in, 13 months Phase 3) with 96 weeks
of treatment. This may be extended for an additional 3 years depending on the results at 96
weeks. Physical examinations will be performed at study entry, weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24,
32, 40, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96. Blood samples will also be taken at study entry, weeks 2, 4,
8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 32, 40, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96. Additionally, blood samples will be drawn
twice, at least 30 minutes apart, at weeks 2 and 48 for maraviroc (UK-427,857)
pharmacokinetic analysis. As part of this clinical study a blood sample will be taken for
non-anonymized pharmacogenetic analysis. Patients will undergo a 12-lead electrocardiogram
at study entry, weeks 24, 48 and 96. A computerized tomography (CT) scan will also be
performed, at selected centers, at study entry and week 96. Patients will be asked to
complete a symptom distress questionnaire at study entry, weeks 12, 24, 48 and 96.
A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Combination Therapy With Retrovir ( AZT ) and HIVID ( ddC ) Versus Retrovir, HIVID, and Wellferon ( Interferon Alfa-n1 ) for the Treatment of HIV Infection [Completed]
Primary: To determine whether the combination of zidovudine/zalcitabine/interferon alfa-n1
(Retrovir/HIVID/Wellferon) can produce complete responses (i. e., CD4 counts return to >= 800
cells/mm3 for more than 24 weeks) in patients with virus sensitive to all three agents. To
determine the antiviral effect of the combination therapies as evidenced by measures of
quantitative viral load performed at select study centers only.
Secondary: To determine the effectiveness of Retrovir/HIVID and Retrovir/HIVID/Wellferon in
maintaining or increasing CD4 counts and preventing disease progression as evidenced by the
development of an AIDS-defining indicator disease. To determine the effect of these regimens
on secondary measures of clinical status (e. g., performance score, weight change, and
secondary infections) and on measures of virologic activity such as serum p24 antigen. To
assess the safety and tolerance of these regimens.
Zidovudine, Interferon Alfa-2b, and PEG-Interferon Alfa-2b in Treating Patients With Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma [Recruiting]
RATIONALE: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 can cause cancer. Zidovudine is an
antiviral drug that acts against the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. Giving
zidovudine, interferon alfa-2b, and PEG-interferon alfa-2b together may stimulate the immune
system and slow down or keep the cancer cell from growing.
PURPOSE: This clinical trial is studying how well giving zidovudine together with interferon
alfa-2b and PEG-interferon alfa-2b works in treating patients with human T-cell lymphotropic
virus type 1-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
A Multi-Center, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial Comparing the Virologic and Immunologic Activities of 400 Mg Nevirapine in Combination With Zidovudine Versus Zidovudine Alone in Asymptomatic HIV-1 Infected Patients With 4-12 Months of Prior Zidovudine Therapy and 200-500 CD4+ Cell [Completed]
PRIMARY: To compare the virologic activity (quantitative RNA PCR, quantitative PBMC) of the
combination of nevirapine and zidovudine (AZT) versus AZT alone after 3 and 6 months of
treatment. To compare the effects of these two regimens on CD4 T-cell count and percentage.
SECONDARY: To compare and evaluate other markers of immunologic and virologic activity in
patients receiving nevirapine/AZT versus AZT alone. To compare the effects of the two
regimens on clinical signs and symptoms. To evaluate the safety and tolerance of the two
A Pilot Study To Evaluate the Effect of Retrovir (Zidovudine: AZT) in the Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Associated Dementia and Neuromuscular Diseases [Completed]
The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the efficacy of Retrovir (AZT) in the
treatment of AIDS-related dementia and various neuromuscular complications. HIV is both a
lymphotropic and neurotropic virus which can affect both the central and peripheral nervous
systems (CNS, PNS). There is evidence that the CNS and PNS may harbor the virus in a latent
state, with the potential for continuous reinfection of other body systems. Therefore,
effective therapeutic efforts against HIV infection should provide effective antiviral
activity within the nervous system.
Reports of Suspected Retrovir (Zidovudine) Side Effects
Foetal Exposure During Pregnancy (76),
Premature Baby (23),
Maternal Exposure During Pregnancy (19),
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (11),
Foetal Growth Restriction (10),
Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection (9),
Tricuspid Valve Incompetence (8), more >>
Page last updated: 2015-07-31