WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Use Caution in Patients with Gastrointestinal Disorders
The safety of Renagel has not been established in patients with dysphagia, swallowing disorders, severe gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders including severe constipation, or major GI tract surgery. Use caution in patients with these GI disorders.
Monitor Serum Chemistries
Bicarbonate and chloride levels should be monitored.
Monitor for Reduced Vitamins D, E, K (clotting factors) and Folic Acid Levels
In preclinical studies in rats and dogs, sevelamer hydrochloride reduced vitamins D, E, and K (coagulation parameters) and folic acid levels at doses of 6-10 times the recommended human dose. In short-term clinical trials, there was no evidence of reduction in serum levels of vitamins. However, in a one-year clinical trial, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (normal range 10 to 55 ng/mL) fell from 39 ± 22 ng/mL to 34 ± 22 ng/mL (p<0.01) with sevelamer hydrochloride treatment. Most (approximately 75%) patients in sevelamer hydrochloride clinical trials received vitamin supplements, which is typical of patients on dialysis.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category C: The effect of Renagel on the absorption of vitamins and other nutrients has not been studied in pregnant women. Requirements for vitamins and other nutrients are increased in pregnancy. In pregnant rats given doses of Renagel during organogenesis, reduced or irregular ossification of fetal bones, probably due to a reduced absorption of fat-soluble vitamin D, occurred. In pregnant rabbits given oral doses of Renagel by gavage during organogenesis, an increase of early resorptions occurred. [See NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY]
Labor and Delivery
No Renagel treatment-related effects on labor and delivery were seen in animal studies. The effects of Renagel on labor and delivery in humans are not known. [See NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY]
The safety and efficacy of Renagel has not been established in pediatric patients.
Clinical studies of Renagel did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range.