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Pyrazinamide (Pyrazinamide) - Summary

 
 



PYRAZINAMIDE SUMMARY

PYRAZINAMIDE TABLETS USP
mg

Pyrazinamide, the pyrazine analogue of nicotinamide, is an antituberculous agent. It is a white crystalline powder, stable at room temperature, and sparingly soluble in water.

Pyrazinamide is indicated for the initial treatment of active tuberculosis in adults and children when combined with other antituberculous agents. (The current recommendation of the CDC for drugsusceptible disease is to use a six-month regimen for initial treatment of active tuberculosis, consisting of isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide given for 2 months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 months.*4)

(Patients with drug-resistant disease should be treated with regimens individualized to their situation. Pyrazinamide frequently will be an important component of such therapy.)

(In patients with concomitant HIV infection, the physician should be aware of current recommendation of CDC. It is possible these patients may require a longer course of treatment)

It is also indicated after treatment failure with other primary drugs in any form of active tuberculosis.

Pyrazinamide should only be used in conjunction with other effective antituberculous agents.

*See recommendations of Center for Disease Control (CDC) and American Thoracic Society for complete regimen and dosage recommendations.4


See all Pyrazinamide indications & dosage >>

NEWS HIGHLIGHTS

Media Articles Related to Pyrazinamide

A new way to attack multi-drug resistance in tuberculosis
Source: MRSA / Drug Resistance News From Medical News Today [2014.10.10]
Using a high-throughput screening assay, EPFL scientists have discovered two small molecules that could overcome the multidrug resistance of the bacterium that causes tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis (TB)
Source: MedicineNet Neutropenia Specialty [2014.01.24]
Title: Tuberculosis (TB)
Category: Diseases and Conditions
Created: 12/31/1997 12:00:00 AM
Last Editorial Review: 1/24/2014 2:28:22 AM

Vectored immunoprophylaxis: a new way to prevent the spread of devastating diseases
Source: HIV / AIDS News From Medical News Today [2014.09.23]
For decades, researchers have tried to develop broadly effective vaccines to prevent the spread of illnesses such as HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis.

more news >>

Published Studies Related to Pyrazinamide

14-day bactericidal activity of PA-824, bedaquiline, pyrazinamide, and moxifloxacin combinations: a randomised trial. [2012]
first 14 days of treatment to assess their suitability for future development... INTERPRETATION: PA-824-moxifloxacin-pyrazinamide is potentially suitable for

Pyrazinamide blood concentrations in children suffering from tuberculosis: a comparative study at two doses. [2008.03]
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: Pyrazinamide is recommended in doses varying from 15 to 40 mg kg(-1). The most commonly used average daily dose is 25 mg kg(-1). Its use is associated with dose dependent hepatotoxicity. Lower doses are not used because of lack of pharmacokinetic data especially in children. There is only one detailed study of pyrazinamide in children at a dose of 35 mg kg(-1). WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: This is the first study evaluating serum concentrations of pyrazinamide in children at a dose of 15 mg kg(-1) which is on the lower side of the recommended dose. The study also compared the serum concentrations and pharmacokinetics achieved with this dose with the widely used dose of 25 mg kg(-1) in children suffering from tuberculosis. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic indices of pyrazinamide were comparable with the 25 and 15 mg kg(-1) doses. AIMS: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic indices of pyrazinamide at doses of 15 and 25 mg kg(-1) in children suffering from tuberculosis... CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that comparable serum concentrations of pyrazinamide are attained with 25 mg kg(-1) and 15 mg kg(-1) doses in children. The elimination half-life was longer and volume of distribution greater in children than in the adult population.

Biological evaluation of pyrazinamide liposomes for treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. [2007.02.07]
Pyrazinamide liposomes were prepared employing the phospholipid molar ratios; dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (7):cholesterol (2) neutral and dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (7):cholesterol (2):dicetyl phosphate (1) negatively charged. Swelling at 52 degrees C led to higher trapping efficiencies...

Weekly rifapentine/isoniazid or daily rifampin/pyrazinamide for latent tuberculosis in household contacts. [2006.04.15]
RATIONALE: Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection with weekly rifapentine and isoniazid is a potentially effective alternative to current therapies. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of weekly rifapentine/isoniazid to daily rifampin/pyrazinamide in preventing TB in household contacts of patients with pulmonary TB in Brazil... CONCLUSIONS: Rifapentine/isoniazid was better tolerated than rifampin/pyrazinamide and was associated with good protection against TB. Rifapentine/isoniazid weekly for 12 wk is likely a promising therapy for latent TB infection.

Is the combination of pyrazinamide plus rifampicin safe for treating latent tuberculosis infection in persons not infected by the human immunodeficiency virus? [2005.03]
SETTING: Nine public health care centres in four Spanish cities. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2 months of rifampicin (R) plus pyrazinamide (Z) therapy (2RZ) compared with a 6-month course of isoniazid therapy (6H) for treating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI).We conclude that the use of RZ should only be considered when other regimens are unsuitable and intensive monitoring of liver function is feasible.

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Clinical Trials Related to Pyrazinamide

Evaluation of Early Bactericidal Activity in Pulmonary Tuberculosis With Clofazimine (C)-TMC207 (J)-PA-824 (Pa)-Pyrazinamide (Z) [Recruiting]
The trial will evaluate the extended bactericidal activity of 14 consecutive days of oral administration of TMC207 plus PA-824 plus Pyrazinamide plus Clofazimine, TMC207 plus PA-824 plus Pyrazinamide, TMC207 plus PA-824 plus Clofazimine alone, TMC207 plus Pyrazinamide plus Clofazimine, Pyrazinamide alone, Clofazimine alone, and standard first line TB treatment as per South African TB Guidelines (Rifafour e-275) as determined by the rate of change of log CFU per ml sputum over the time period Day 0-14 in participants with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). A control group will receive standard treatment.

Controlled Comparison of Two Moxifloxacin Containing Treatment Shortening Regimens in Pulmonary Tuberculosis [Recruiting]
REMoxTB is a study for the "Rapid Evaluation of Moxifloxacin in the treatment of sputum smear positive tuberculosis". REMoxTB aims to find and evaluate new drugs and regimens that shorten the duration of tuberculosis therapy.

The purpose of REMoxTB is to evaluate the efficacy, safety and acceptability of two moxifloxacin-containing treatment combinations to determine whether substituting ethambutol with moxifloxacin in one combination, and/or substituting isoniazid with moxifloxacin in another combination, makes it possible to reduce the duration of treatment for TB.

Rifapentine Plus Moxifloxacin for Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis [Recruiting]
Although effective therapy for tuberculosis is available, TB continues to cause significant problems worldwide, and rates of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB cases are on the rise. A major obstacle to the control of TB is poor adherence with lengthy (usually 6 months) and complicated treatment regimens. Incomplete TB treatment can lead to serious consequences such as increased severity of illness and death, prolonged infectiousness and transmission in the community, and the development of drug resistance. The development of new treatment strategies with more stronger drugs could lead to shorter and simpler regimens. A TB treatment regimen that allowed treatment duration to be meaningfully decreased would have important public health implications.

This trial will compare the effect and safety of a new oral regimen to that of the standard regimen for the first phase of treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis.

The experimental regimen will consist of the following:

- Two months of isoniazid, rifapentine, pyrazinamide and moxifloxacin (HPZM) administered

once daily. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) will be given with each dose of isoniazid.

The standard control intensive phase regimen will consist of the following:

- Two months of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol (HRZE) administered

once daily. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) will be given with each dose of isoniazid.

Following intensive phase therapy (the study phase), all patients will be treated with a non-experimental continuation phase regimen.

In mice, the combination of Moxifloxacin and Rifapentine have cured the animals significantly faster than the standard regimen and this study will be the first step to see if the potential is also there in humans.

Safety, Tolerability, Extended Early Bactericidal Activity and PK of Higher Doses Rifampicin in Adults With Pulmonary TB [Recruiting]
This is the first trial in a series of clinical trials that aim to bring the concept of high dose rifampicin beyond phase II of clinical development.

The safety, tolerability, extended early bactericidal activity (EBA) and pharmacokinetics of several doses of Rifampicin with or without standard doses of Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol in adults with newly diagnosed, uncomplicated, smear positive, pulmonary TB will be assessed. The objective of this study is to find the maximum tolerable dose of Rifampicin as monotherapy and in combination with the currently available Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol.

The subjects will be in the study for 24-31 days. After a screening period of 9-3 days, the subjects will receive treatment with Rifampicin as single drug during 7 days (monotherapy). This treatment will be followed by treatment with 7 days of Rifampicin and Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol (combination therapy), and 7-8 days treatment with standard TB medication.

All subjects will be closely monitored for side effects. This monitoring will include daily interviews and physical examination, and ECG evaluation and blood and urine analyses at specific intervals.

During the 7 days of monotherapy, after the second day of the combination therapy and at the end of the combination therapy, overnight sputum will be collected from the patients to investigate the potency of high dose rifampicin to reduce this number of bacilli.

The Rifampicin dose will be increased step by step and group by group. The control group will receive the standard dose of 10 mg Rifampicin/kg, whereas the first treatment group will receive 20 mg/kg. The Rifampicin dose will only be further increased for a next group of patients, if this is expected to be safe.

Rifampicin is widely available and not expensive. Physicians all over the world have experience with this drug and its adverse effects. Should this study be successful, the highest dose of Rifampicin that this safe and tolerable will be given to a larger group of patients. in the next study.

If increasing the dose of Rifampicin proves to be safe and effective, a higher dose of Rifampicin could be implemented broadly and quickly, and it would benefit many patients worldwide.

TBTC Study 27/28 PK: Moxifloxacin Pharmacokinetics During TB Treatment [Completed]
This substudy of TBTC Studies 27 and 28 compares 1) the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin alone versus moxifloxacin administered with rifampin in healthy volunteers and 2) the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin among patients with tuberculosis being treated with multidrug therapy (isoniazid or ethambutol, rifampin, and pyrazinamide) to those of healthy volunteers receiving moxifloxacin plus rifampin. It also evaluates the association between polymorphisms of MDR1 genotype (P-glycoprotein) and rifampin pharmacokinetic parameters, the effect of polymorphisms of MDR1 genotype and/or rifampin pharmacokinetics on isoniazid pharmacokinetic parameters adjusted for N-acetyltransferase genotype (NAT2), and determines by multivariate regression analyses the associations between moxifloxacin or rifampin pharmacokinetic parameters and markers of tuberculosis disease severity including the covariates of two-month culture positivity, cavitary lung disease, Body Mass Index, weight, duration of study treatment prior to PK, co-morbidities and C-reactive protein. Healthy volunteers and TB patients receive frequent scheduled blood draws during a 24 hour period after ingesting a dose of TB drugs.

more trials >>

Reports of Suspected Pyrazinamide Side Effects

Acute Hepatic Failure (34)Jaundice (18)Pyrexia (16)Hepatitis (16)Hepatic Encephalopathy (13)Paradoxical Drug Reaction (11)Drug Rash With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (10)Peritoneal Tuberculosis (9)Hepatic Function Abnormal (8)Hepatotoxicity (8)more >>


Page last updated: 2014-10-10

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