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Prozac (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) - Indications and Dosage

 
 



INDICATIONS AND USAGE

MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER

Prozac is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

Adult --The efficacy of Prozac was established in 5- and 6-week trials with depressed adult and geriatric outpatients (≥18 years of age) whose diagnoses corresponded most closely to the DSM-III (currently DSM-IV) category of major depressive disorder (see CLINICAL TRIALS).

A major depressive episode (DSM-IV) implies a prominent and relatively persistent (nearly every day for at least 2 weeks) depressed or dysphoric mood that usually interferes with daily functioning, and includes at least 5 of the following 9 symptoms: depressed mood, loss of interest in usual activities, significant change in weight and/or appetite, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or retardation, increased fatigue, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, slowed thinking or impaired concentration, a suicide attempt or suicidal ideation.

The effects of Prozac in hospitalized depressed patients have not been adequately studied.

The efficacy of Prozac 20 mg once daily in maintaining a response in major depressive disorder for up to 38 weeks following 12 weeks of open-label acute treatment (50 weeks total) was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial.

The efficacy of Prozac Weekly once weekly in maintaining a response in major depressive disorder has been demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial for up to 25 weeks following open-label acute treatment of 13 weeks with Prozac 20 mg daily for a total treatment of 38 weeks. However, it is unknown whether or not Prozac Weekly given on a once-weekly basis provides the same level of protection from relapse as that provided by Prozac 20 mg daily (see CLINICAL TRIALS).

Pediatric (children and adolescents) -- The efficacy of Prozac in children and adolescents was established in two 8- to 9-week placebo-controlled clinical trials in depressed outpatients whose diagnoses corresponded most closely to the DSM-III-R or DSM-IV category of major depressive disorder (see CLINICAL TRIALS).

The usefulness of the drug in adult and pediatric patients receiving fluoxetine for extended periods should be reevaluated periodically.

OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER

Adult -- Prozac is indicated for the treatment of obsessions and compulsions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), as defined in the DSM-III-R; i.e., the obsessions or compulsions cause marked distress, are time-consuming, or significantly interfere with social or occupational functioning.

The efficacy of Prozac was established in 13-week trials with obsessive-compulsive outpatients whose diagnoses corresponded most closely to the DSM-III-R category of OCD (see CLINICAL TRIALS).

OCD is characterized by recurrent and persistent ideas, thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions) that are ego-dystonic and/or repetitive, purposeful, and intentional behaviors (compulsions) that are recognized by the person as excessive or unreasonable.

The effectiveness of Prozac in long-term use, i.e., for more than 13 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in placebo-controlled trials. Therefore, the physician who elects to use Prozac for extended periods should periodically reevaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Pediatric (children and adolescents) -- The efficacy of Prozac in children and adolescents was established in a 13-week, dose titration, clinical trial in patients with OCD, as defined in DSM-IV (see CLINICAL TRIALS).

BULIMIA NERVOSA

Prozac is indicated for the treatment of binge-eating and vomiting behaviors in patients with moderate to severe bulimia nervosa.

The efficacy of Prozac was established in 8- to 16-week trials for adult outpatients with moderate to severe bulimia nervosa, i.e., at least 3 bulimic episodes per week for 6 months (see CLINICAL TRIALS).

The efficacy of Prozac 60 mg/day in maintaining a response, in patients with bulimia who responded during an 8-week acute treatment phase while taking Prozac 60 mg/day and were then observed for relapse during a period of up to 52 weeks, was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial (see CLINICAL TRIALS). Nevertheless, the physician who elects to use Prozac for extended periods should periodically reevaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

PANIC DISORDER

Prozac is indicated for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, as defined in DSM-IV. Panic disorder is characterized by the occurrence of unexpected panic attacks, and associated concern about having additional attacks, worry about the implications or consequences of the attacks, and/or a significant change in behavior related to the attacks.

The efficacy of Prozac was established in two 12-week clinical trials in patients whose diagnoses corresponded to the DSM-IV category of panic disorder (see CLINICAL TRIALS).

Panic disorder (DSM-IV) is characterized by recurrent, unexpected panic attacks, i.e., a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in which 4 or more of the following symptoms develop abruptly and reach a peak within 10 minutes: 1) palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate; 2) sweating; 3) trembling or shaking; 4) sensations of shortness of breath or smothering; 5) feeling of choking; 6) chest pain or discomfort; 7) nausea or abdominal distress; 8) feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint; 9) fear of losing control; 10) fear of dying; 11) paresthesias (numbness or tingling sensations); 12) chills or hot flashes.

The effectiveness of Prozac in long-term use, i.e., for more than 12 weeks, has not been established in placebo-controlled trials. Therefore, the physician who elects to use Prozac for extended periods should periodically reevaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Major Depressive Disorder

Initial Treatment

Adult -- In controlled trials used to support the efficacy of fluoxetine, patients were administered morning doses ranging from 20 to 80 mg/day. Studies comparing fluoxetine 20, 40, and 60 mg/day to placebo indicate that 20 mg/day is sufficient to obtain a satisfactory response in major depressive disorder in most cases. Consequently, a dose of 20 mg/day, administered in the morning, is recommended as the initial dose.

A dose increase may be considered after several weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed. Doses above 20 mg/day may be administered on a once-a-day (morning) or BID schedule (i.e., morning and noon) and should not exceed a maximum dose of 80 mg/day.

Pediatric (children and adolescents) -- In the short-term (8 to 9 week) controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of major depressive disorder, patients were administered fluoxetine doses of 10 to 20 mg/day (see CLINICAL TRIALS). Treatment should be initiated with a dose of 10 or 20 mg/day. After 1 week at 10 mg/day, the dose should be increased to 20 mg/day.

However, due to higher plasma levels in lower weight children, the starting and target dose in this group may be 10 mg/day. A dose increase to 20 mg/day may be considered after several weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed.

All patients -- As with other drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder, the full effect may be delayed until 4 weeks of treatment or longer.

As with many other medications, a lower or less frequent dosage should be used in patients with hepatic impairment. A lower or less frequent dosage should also be considered for the elderly (see Geriatric Use under PRECAUTIONS), and for patients with concurrent disease or on multiple concomitant medications. Dosage adjustments for renal impairment are not routinely necessary (see Liver disease and Renal disease under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, and Use in patients with concomitant illness under PRECAUTIONS).

Maintenance/Continuation/Extended Treatment

It is generally agreed that acute episodes of major depressive disorder require several months or longer of sustained pharmacologic therapy. Whether the dose needed to induce remission is identical to the dose needed to maintain and/or sustain euthymia is unknown.

Daily Dosing

Systematic evaluation of Prozac in adult patients has shown that its efficacy in major depressive disorder is maintained for periods of up to 38 weeks following 12 weeks of open-label acute treatment (50 weeks total) at a dose of 20 mg/day (see CLINICAL TRIALS).

Weekly Dosing

Systematic evaluation of Prozac Weekly in adult patients has shown that its efficacy in major depressive disorder is maintained for periods of up to 25 weeks with once-weekly dosing following 13 weeks of open-label treatment with Prozac 20 mg once daily. However, therapeutic equivalence of Prozac Weekly given on a once-weekly basis with Prozac 20 mg given daily for delaying time to relapse has not been established (see CLINICAL TRIALS).

Weekly dosing with Prozac Weekly capsules is recommended to be initiated 7 days after the last daily dose of Prozac 20 mg (see Weekly dosing under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

If satisfactory response is not maintained with Prozac Weekly, consider reestablishing a daily dosing regimen (see CLINICAL TRIALS).

Switching Patients to a Tricyclic Antidepressant (TCA)

Dosage of a TCA may need to be reduced, and plasma TCA concentrations may need to be monitored temporarily when fluoxetine is coadministered or has been recently discontinued (see Other drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder under Drug Interactions).

Switching Patients to or from a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI)

At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAOI and initiation of therapy with Prozac. In addition, at least 5 weeks, perhaps longer, should be allowed after stopping Prozac before starting an MAOI (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS).

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Initial Treatment

Adult -- In the controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of OCD, patients were administered fixed daily doses of 20, 40, or 60 mg of fluoxetine or placebo (see CLINICAL TRIALS). In 1 of these studies, no dose-response relationship for effectiveness was demonstrated. Consequently, a dose of 20 mg/day, administered in the morning, is recommended as the initial dose. Since there was a suggestion of a possible dose-response relationship for effectiveness in the second study, a dose increase may be considered after several weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed. The full therapeutic effect may be delayed until 5 weeks of treatment or longer.

Doses above 20 mg/day may be administered on a once-a-day (i.e., morning) or BID schedule (i.e., morning and noon). A dose range of 20 to 60 mg/day is recommended; however, doses of up to 80 mg/day have been well tolerated in open studies of OCD. The maximum fluoxetine dose should not exceed 80 mg/day.

Pediatric (children and adolescents) -- In the controlled clinical trial of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of OCD, patients were administered fluoxetine doses in the range of 10 to 60 mg/day (see CLINICAL TRIALS).

In adolescents and higher weight children, treatment should be initiated with a dose of 10 mg/day. After 2 weeks, the dose should be increased to 20 mg/day. Additional dose increases may be considered after several more weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed. A dose range of 20 to 60 mg/day is recommended.

In lower weight children, treatment should be initiated with a dose of 10 mg/day. Additional dose increases may be considered after several more weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed. A dose range of 20 to 30 mg/day is recommended. Experience with daily doses greater than 20 mg is very minimal, and there is no experience with doses greater than 60 mg.

All patients -- As with the use of Prozac in the treatment of major depressive disorder, a lower or less frequent dosage should be used in patients with hepatic impairment. A lower or less frequent dosage should also be considered for the elderly (see Geriatric Use under PRECAUTIONS), and for patients with concurrent disease or on multiple concomitant medications. Dosage adjustments for renal impairment are not routinely necessary (see Liver disease and Renal disease under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, and Use in patients with concomitant illness under PRECAUTIONS).

Maintenance/Continuation Treatment

While there are no systematic studies that answer the question of how long to continue Prozac, OCD is a chronic condition and it is reasonable to consider continuation for a responding patient. Although the efficacy of Prozac after 13 weeks has not been documented in controlled trials, adult patients have been continued in therapy under double-blind conditions for up to an additional 6 months without loss of benefit. However, dosage adjustments should be made to maintain the patient on the lowest effective dosage, and patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for treatment.

Bulimia Nervosa

Initial Treatment

In the controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of bulimia nervosa, patients were administered fixed daily fluoxetine doses of 20 or 60 mg, or placebo (see CLINICAL TRIALS). Only the 60-mg dose was statistically significantly superior to placebo in reducing the frequency of binge-eating and vomiting. Consequently, the recommended dose is 60 mg/day, administered in the morning. For some patients it may be advisable to titrate up to this target dose over several days. Fluoxetine doses above 60 mg/day have not been systematically studied in patients with bulimia.

As with the use of Prozac in the treatment of major depressive disorder and OCD, a lower or less frequent dosage should be used in patients with hepatic impairment. A lower or less frequent dosage should also be considered for the elderly (see Geriatric Use under PRECAUTIONS), and for patients with concurrent disease or on multiple concomitant medications. Dosage adjustments for renal impairment are not routinely necessary (see Liver disease and Renal disease under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, and Use in patients with concomitant illness under PRECAUTIONS).

Maintenance/Continuation Treatment

Systematic evaluation of continuing Prozac 60 mg/day for periods of up to 52 weeks in patients with bulimia who have responded while taking Prozac 60 mg/day during an 8-week acute treatment phase has demonstrated a benefit of such maintenance treatment (see CLINICAL TRIALS). Nevertheless, patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment.

Panic Disorder

Initial Treatment

In the controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of panic disorder, patients were administered fluoxetine doses in the range of 10 to 60 mg/day (see CLINICAL TRIALS). Treatment should be initiated with a dose of 10 mg/day. After 1 week, the dose should be increased to 20 mg/day. The most frequently administered dose in the 2 flexible-dose clinical trials was 20 mg/day.

A dose increase may be considered after several weeks if no clinical improvement is observed. Fluoxetine doses above 60 mg/day have not been systematically evaluated in patients with panic disorder.

As with the use of Prozac in other indications, a lower or less frequent dosage should be used in patients with hepatic impairment. A lower or less frequent dosage should also be considered for the elderly (see Geriatric Use under PRECAUTIONS), and for patients with concurrent disease or on multiple concomitant medications. Dosage adjustments for renal impairment are not routinely necessary (see Liver disease and Renal disease under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, and Use in patients with concomitant illness under PRECAUTIONS).

Maintenance/Continuation Treatment

While there are no systematic studies that answer the question of how long to continue Prozac, panic disorder is a chronic condition and it is reasonable to consider continuation for a responding patient. Nevertheless, patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for continued treatment.

Special Populations

Treatment of Pregnant Women During the Third Trimester

Neonates exposed to Prozac and other SSRIs or SNRIs, late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding (see PRECAUTIONS). When treating pregnant women with Prozac during the third trimester, the physician should carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of treatment. The physician may consider tapering Prozac in the third trimester.

Discontinuation of Treatment with Prozac

Symptoms associated with discontinuation of Prozac and other SSRIs and SNRIs, have been reported (see PRECAUTIONS). Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate. Plasma fluoxetine and norfluoxetine concentration decrease gradually at the conclusion of therapy which may minimize the risk of discontinuation symptoms with this drug.

HOW SUPPLIED

The following products are manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company for Dista Products Company.

Prozac® Pulvules®, USP, are available in:

The 10-mg1 Pulvule is opaque green and green, imprinted with DISTA 3104 on the cap and Prozac 10 mg on the body:

NDC 0777-3104-02 (PU31042) - Bottles of 100

NDC 0777-3104-07 (PU31042) - Bottles of 2000

NDC 0777-3104-82 (PU31042) - 20 FlexPak™3 blister cards of 31

The 20-mg 1 Pulvule is an opaque green cap and off-white body, imprinted with DISTA 3105 on the cap and Prozac 20 mg on the body:

NDC 0777-3105-30 (PU31052) - Bottles of 30

NDC 0777-3105-02 (PU31052) - Bottles of 100

NDC 0777-3105-07 (PU31052) - Bottles of 2000

NDC 0777-3105-33 (PU31052) - (ID4 100) Blisters

NDC 0777-3105-82 (PU3105 2) - 20 FlexPak™3 blister cards of 31

The 40-mg1 Pulvule is an opaque green cap and opaque orange body, imprinted with DISTA 3107 on the cap and Prozac 40 mg on the body:

NDC 0777-3107-30 (PU3107 2) - Bottles of 30

The following is manufactured by OSG Norwich Pharmaceuticals, Inc., North Norwich, NY, 13814, for Dista Products Company:

Liquid, Oral Solution is available in:

20 mg1 per 5 mL with mint flavor:

NDC 0777-5120-58 (MS-5120 5) - Bottles of 120 mL

The following products are manufactured and distributed by Eli Lilly and Company.

Prozac®Tablets are available in:

The 10-mg 1 tablet is green, elliptical shaped, and scored, with PROZAC 10 debossed on opposite side of score.

NDC 0002-4006-30 (TA4006) - Bottles of 30

NDC 0002-4006-02 (TA4006) - Bottles of 100

Prozac® Weekly™ Capsules are available in:

The 90-mg1 capsule is an opaque green cap and clear body containing discretely visible white pellets through the clear body of the capsule, imprinted with Lilly on the cap and 3004 and 90 mg on the body.

NDC 0002-3004-75 (PU3004) - Blister package of 4


1 Fluoxetine base equivalent.
2 Protect from light.
3 FlexPak™ (flexible blister card, Lilly).
4 Identi-Dose® (unit dose medication, Lilly).
5 Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container.

Store at Controlled Room Temperature, 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).

ANIMAL TOXICOLOGY

Phospholipids are increased in some tissues of mice, rats, and dogs given fluoxetine chronically. This effect is reversible after cessation of fluoxetine treatment. Phospholipid accumulation in animals has been observed with many cationic amphiphilic drugs, including fenfluramine, imipramine, and ranitidine. The significance of this effect in humans is unknown.

Literature revised June 11, 2004

Eli Lilly and Company Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA www.lilly.com

PV 3456 DPP

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