PROTOPAM Chloride (pralidoxime chloride) for Injection
Pralidoxime chloride is a cholinesterase reactivator.
PROTOPAM is indicated as an antidote: (1) in the treatment of poisoning due to those pesticides and chemicals of the organophosphate class which have anticholinesterase activity and (2) in the control of overdosage by anticholinesterase drugs used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis.
The principal indications for the use of pralidoxime are muscle weakness and respiratory depression. In severe poisoning, respiratory depression may be due to muscle weakness.
Published Studies Related to Protopam (Pralidoxime)
Pharmacokinetic analysis of pralidoxime after its intramuscular injection alone or in combination with atropine-avizafone in healthy volunteers. [2010.12]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Treatment of organophosphate poisoning with pralidoxime needs to be improved. Here we have studied the pharmacokinetics of pralidoxime after its intramuscular injection alone or in combination with avizafone and atropine using an auto-injector device... CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The two approaches, non-compartmental and compartmental, showed that the administration of avizafone and atropine with pralidoxime results in a faster absorption into the general circulation and higher maximal concentrations, compared with the administration of pralidoxime alone.
Pralidoxime in acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning--a randomised controlled trial. [2009.06.30]
CONCLUSIONS: Despite clear reactivation of red cell acetylcholinesterase in diethyl organophosphorus pesticide poisoned patients, we found no evidence that this regimen improves survival or reduces need for intubation in patients with organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. The reason for this failure to benefit patients was not apparent. Further studies of different dose regimens or different oximes are required.
Continuous pralidoxime infusion versus repeated bolus injection to treat organophosphorus pesticide poisoning: a randomised controlled trial. [2006.12.16]
BACKGROUND: The role of oximes for the treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning has not been conclusively established. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a constant pralidoxime infusion compared with repeated bolus doses to treat patients with moderately severe poisoning from organophosphorus pesticides... INTERPRETATION: A high-dose regimen of pralidoxime, consisting of a constant infusion of 1 g/h for 48 h after a 2 g loading dose, reduces morbidity and mortality in moderately severe cases of acute organophosphorus-pesticide poisoning.
Biochemical and clinical profile after organophosphorus poisoning--a placebo-controlled trial using pralidoxime. [2005.05]
BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are the most common suicidal poison in developing countries and mortality continues to be high... CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with P2AM does not make any difference in BuChE reactivation or complications of moderate and severe OP poisoning. We have not been using P2AM for OP poisoning in our medical ICU with good patient outcomes.
Does modulation of organic cation transporters improve pralidoxime activity in an animal model of organophosphate poisoning? [2011.04]
CONCLUSIONS: Pralidoxime is secreted in rats and mice by renal Oct1 and/or Oct2 but not by Oct3. Modulation of organic cation transporter activity increased the plasma pralidoxime concentrations and the antidotal effect of pralidoxime with sustained return within the normal range of respiratory variables in paraoxon-poisoned rats. These results suggest a promising approach in an animal model toward the increase in efficiency of pralidoxime. However, further studies are needed before these results are extended to human poisoning.
Clinical Trials Related to Protopam (Pralidoxime)
Study to Know the Efficacy of Higher Doses of Pralidoxime in Patients of Organophpsphorus Poisoning. [Completed]
The purpose of this study is to determine whether high doses of pralidoxime(PAM) are
effective as compare to lower doses of PAM in the management of moderately sever
organophosphorus poisoning patients.