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Promethazine (Promethazine Hydrochloride) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Overdosage, etc

 
 



DRUG INTERACTIONS

Drug Interactions

CNS Depressants

Promethazine HCl Injection may increase, prolong, or intensify the sedative action of central-nervous-system depressants, such as alcohol, sedative/hypnotics (including barbiturates), general anesthetics, narcotics, narcotic analgesics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers; therefore, such agents should be avoided or administered in reduced dosage to patients receiving promethazine HCl. When given concomitantly with Promethazine HCl Injection, the dose of barbiturates should be reduced by at least one-half, and the dose of narcotics should be reduced by one-quarter to one-half. Dosage must be individualized. Excessive amounts of Promethazine HCl Injection relative to a narcotic may lead to restlessness and motor hyperactivity in the patient with pain; these symptoms usually disappear with adequate control of the pain.

OVERDOSAGE

Signs and symptoms of overdosage range from mild depression of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system to profound hypotension, respiratory depression, unconsciousness and sudden death. Other reported reactions include hyperreflexia, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, and extensor-plantar reflexes (Babinski reflex).

Stimulation may be evident, especially in pediatric patients and geriatric patients. Convulsions may rarely occur. A paradoxical-type reaction has been reported in pediatric patients receiving single doses of 75 mg to 125 mg orally, characterized by hyperexcitability and nightmares.

Atropine-like signs and symptoms-dry mouth; fixed, dilated pupils; flushing; etc., as well as gastrointestinal symptoms, may occur.

Treatment

Treatment of overdosage is essentially symptomatic and supportive. Only in cases of extreme overdosage or individual sensitivity do vital signs, including respiration, pulse, blood pressure, temperature, and EKG, need to be monitored. Attention should be given to the reestablishment of adequate respiratory exchange through provision of a patent airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation. Diazepam may be used to control convulsions. Acidosis and electrolyte losses should be corrected. Note that any depressant effects of Promethazine HCl Injection are not reversed by naloxone.

Avoid analeptics, which may cause convulsions. The treatment of choice for resulting hypotension is administration of intravenous fluids, accompanied by repositioning if indicated. In the event that vasopressors are considered for the management of severe hypotension which does not respond to intravenous fluids and repositioning, the administration of norepinephrine or phenylephrine should be considered. EPINEPHRINE SHOULD NOT BE USED, since its use in a patient with partial adrenergic blockade may further lower the blood pressure. Extrapyramidal reactions may be treated with anticholinergic antiparkinson agents, diphenhydramine, or barbiturates. Oxygen may also be administered. Limited experience with dialysis indicates that it is not helpful.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Promethazine HCl is contraindicated for use in pediatric patients less than two years of age.

Promethazine HCl Injection is contraindicated in comatose states and in patients who have demonstrated an idiosyncratic reaction or hypersensitivity to promethazine or other phenothiazines.

Under no circumstances should Promethazine HCl Injection be given by intra-arterial injection due to the likelihood of severe arteriospasm and the possibility of resultant gangrene (see WARNINGS—Injection Site Reactions).

Promethazine HCl Injection should not be given by the subcutaneous route; evidence of chemical irritation has been noted, and necrotic lesions have resulted following subcutaneous injection. The preferred parenteral route of administration is by deep intramuscular injection.

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