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Probenecid (Probenecid) - Description and Clinical Pharmacology

 
 



DESCRIPTION

Probenecid is a uricosuric and renal tubular transport blocking agent.

The chemical name for probenecid is 4-[(dipropylamino) sulfonyl] benzoic acid (molecular weight 285.37). It has the following structural formula:

C H NO S 13 19 4

Probenecid, USP is a white or nearly white, fine, crystalline powder. Probenecid is soluble in dilute alkali, in alcohol, in chloroform, and in acetone; it is practically insoluble in water and in dilute acids.

Each tablet for oral administration contains 500 mg of probenecid and the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, sodium carbonate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium starch glycolate, cornstarch, titanium dioxide, triacetin, FD&C Yellow #6, D&C Yellow #10, and FD&C Blue #2.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Probenecid is a uricosuric and renal tubular blocking agent. It inhibits the tubular reabsorption of urate, thus increasing the urinary excretion of uric acid and decreasing serum urate levels. Effective uricosuria reduces the miscible urate pool, retards urate deposition, and promotes resorption of urate deposits.

Probenecid inhibits the tubular secretion of penicillin and usually increases penicillin plasma levels by any route the antibiotic is given. A 2-fold to 4-fold elevation has been demonstrated for various penicillins.

Probenecid also has been reported to inhibit the renal transport of many other compounds including aminohippuric acid (PAH), aminosalicylic acid (PAS), indomethacin, sodium iodomethamate and related iodinated organic acids, 17-ketosteroids, pantothenic acid, phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP), sulfonamides, and sulfonylureas. See also. Drug Interactions

Probenecid decreases both hepatic and renal excretion of sulfobromophthalein (BSP). The tubular reabsorption of phosphorus is inhibited in hypoparathyroid but not in euparathyroid individuals.

Probenecid does not influence plasma concentrations of salicylates, nor the excretion of streptomycin, chloramphenicol, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, or neomycin.

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