Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies have been performed in pregnant rats at oral lansoprazole doses up to 150 mg/kg/day [49 times the recommended human dose (30 mg/day) based on body surface area (BSA)] and pregnant rabbits at oral lansoprazole doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (19 times the recommended human dose based on BSA) and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to lansoprazole. There are, however, no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
See full prescribing information for clarithromycin before using in pregnant women.
Lansoprazole or its metabolites are excreted in the milk of rats. It is not known whether lansoprazole is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from lansoprazole, and because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for lansoprazole in rat carcinogenicity studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue lansoprazole, taking into account the importance of lansoprazole to the mother.
The safety and effectiveness of PREVACID have been established in pediatric patients 1 to 17 years of age for short-term treatment of symptomatic GERD and erosive esophagitis, however, PREVACID was not effective in patients with symptomatic GERD 1 month to less than 1 year of age in a multi-center, double-blind, placebo controlled study.
Neonate to less than 1 year of age
The pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole were studied in pediatric patients with GERD aged less than 28 days and 1 to 11 months. Compared to healthy adults receiving 30 mg, neonates had higher exposure (mean weight-based normalized AUC values 2.04- and 1.88-fold higher at doses of 0.5 mg/kg/day and1 mg/kg/day, respectively). Infants aged ≤ 10 weeks had clearance and exposure values that were similar to neonates. Infants aged greater than 10 weeks who received 1 mg/kg/day had mean AUC values that were similar to adults who received a 30 mg dose.
Lansoprazole was not found to be effective in a U.S. and Polish 4 week multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 162 patients between one month and less than 12 months of age with symptomatic GERD based on a medical history of crying/fussing/irritability associated with feedings who had not responded to conservative GERD management (i.e., non-pharmacologic intervention) for 7 to 14 days. Patients received lansoprazole as a suspension daily (0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg/day in infants ≤ 10 weeks of age or 1.0 to 1.5 mg/kg/day in infants greater than 10 weeks or placebo) for up to 4 weeks of double-blind treatment.
The primary efficacy endpoint was assessed by greater than 50% reduction from baseline in either the percent of feedings with a crying/fussing/irritability episode or the duration (minutes) of a crying/fussing/irritability episode within one hour after feeding.
There was no difference in the percentage of responders between the lansoprazole pediatric suspension group and placebo group (54% in both groups).
There were no adverse events reported in pediatric clinical studies (1 month to less than 12 months of age) that were not previously observed in adults.
Based on the results of the Phase 3 efficacy study, lansoprazole was not shown to be effective. Therefore, these results do not support the use of lansoprazole in treating symptomatic GERD in infants.
One to 11 years of age
In an uncontrolled, open-label, U.S. multicenter study, 66 pediatric patients (1 to 11 years of age) with GERD were assigned, based on body weight, to receive an initial dose of either PREVACID 15 mg daily if ≤ 30 kg or PREVACID 30 mg daily if greater than 30 kg administered for 8 to 12 weeks. The PREVACID dose was increased (up to 30 mg twice daily) in 24 of 66 pediatric patients after 2 or more weeks of treatment if they remained symptomatic. At baseline 85% of patients had mild to moderate overall GERD symptoms (assessed by investigator interview), 58% had non-erosive GERD and 42% had erosive esophagitis (assessed by endoscopy).
After 8 to 12 weeks of PREVACID treatment, the intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated an approximate 50% reduction in frequency and severity of GERD symptoms.
Twenty-one of 27 erosive esophagitis patients were healed at 8 weeks and 100% of patients were healed at 12 weeks by endoscopy (Table 2).
Table 2: GERD symptom improvement and Erosive Esophagitis healing rates in pediatric patients age 1 to 11
|GERD||Final VisitAt Week 8 or Week 12 % (n/N)|
Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms
76% (47/62 No data were available for 4 pediatric patients.)
Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms
In a study of 66 pediatric patients in the age group 1 year to 11 years old after treatment with PREVACID given orally in doses of 15 mg daily to 30 mg twice daily, increases in serum gastrin levels were similar to those observed in adult studies. Median fasting serum gastrin levels increased 89% from
51 pg/ mL at baseline to 97 pg/mL [interquartile range (25th-75th percentile) of 71-130 pg/ mL] at the final visit.
The pediatric safety of PREVACID Delayed-Release Capsules has been assessed in 66 pediatric patients aged 1 to 11 years of age. Of the 66 patients with GERD 85% (56/66) took PREVACID for 8 weeks and 15% (10/66) took it for 12 weeks.
The most frequently reported (2 or more patients) treatment-related adverse reactions in patients 1 to 11 years of age (N=66) were constipation (5%) and headache (3%).
Twelve to 17 years of age
In an uncontrolled, open-label, U.S. multicenter study, 87 adolescent patients (12 to 17 years of age) with symptomatic GERD were treated with PREVACID for 8 to 12 weeks. Baseline upper endoscopies classified these patients into two groups: 64 (74%) nonerosive GERD and 23 (26%) erosive esophagitis (EE). The nonerosive GERD patients received PREVACID 15 mg daily for 8 weeks and the EE patients received PREVACID 30 mg daily for 8 to 12 weeks. At baseline, 89% of these patients had mild to moderate overall GERD symptoms (assessed by investigator interviews). During 8 weeks of PREVACID treatment, adolescent patients experienced a 63% reduction in frequency and a 69% reduction in severity of GERD symptoms based on diary results.
Twenty-one of 22 (95.5%) adolescent erosive esophagitis patients were healed after 8 weeks of PREVACID treatment. One patient remained unhealed after 12 weeks of treatment (Table 3).
Table 3: GERD symptom improvement and Erosive Esophagitis healing rates in pediatric patients age 12 to 17
|GERD||Final Visit % (n/N)|
|Symptomatic GERD (All Patients)|
| Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms
| Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms||71.2% (42/59)|
| Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms||78.3% (18/23)|
| Healing Rate
In these 87 adolescent patients, increases in serum gastrin levels were similar to those observed in adult studies, median fasting serum gastrin levels increased 42% from 45 pg/mL at baseline to 64 pg/mL [interquartile range (25th – 75th percentile) of 44 – 88 pg/mL] at the final visit. (Normal serum gastrin levels are 25 to 111 pg/mL).
The safety of PREVACID Delayed-Release Capsules has been assessed in these 87 adolescent patients. Of the 87 adolescent patients with GERD, 6% (5/87) took PREVACID for less than 6 weeks, 93% (81/87) for 6-10 weeks, and 1% (1/87) for greater than 10 weeks.
The most frequently reported (at least 3%) treatment-related adverse reactions in these patients were headache (7%), abdominal pain (5%), nausea (3%) and dizziness (3%). Treatment-related dizziness, reported in this package insert as occurring in less than 1% of adult patients, was reported in this study by 3 adolescent patients with nonerosive GERD, who had dizziness concurrently with other reactions (such as migraine, dyspnea, and vomiting).
No dosage adjustment of PREVACID is necessary in geriatric patients. The incidence rates of PREVACID-associated adverse reactions and laboratory test abnormalities are similar to those seen in younger patients. [See Clinical Pharmacology]
No dosage adjustment of PREVACID is necessary in patients with renal impairment. The pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole in patients with various degrees of renal impairment were not substantially different compared to those in subjects with normal renal function. [See Clinical Pharmacology]
In patients with various degrees of chronic hepatic impairment, an increase in the mean AUC of up to 500% was observed at steady state compared to healthy subjects. Consider dose reduction in patients with severe hepatic impairment. [See Clinical Pharmacology]
Over 4,000 women were treated with PREVACID. Ulcer healing rates in females were similar to those in males. The incidence rates of adverse reactions in females were similar to those seen in males. [See Clinical Pharmacology]
The pooled mean pharmacokinetic parameters of PREVACID from twelve U.S. Phase 1 studies (N=513) were compared to the mean pharmacokinetic parameters from two Asian studies (N=20). The mean AUCs of PREVACID in Asian subjects were approximately twice those seen in pooled U.S. data; however, the inter-individual variability was high. The Cmax values were comparable.