Mechanism of Action
PREVACID (lansoprazole) belongs to a class of antisecretory compounds, the substituted benzimidazoles, that suppress gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the (H+, K+)-ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. Because this enzyme system is regarded as the acid (proton) pump within the parietal cell, lansoprazole has been characterized as a gastric acid-pump inhibitor, in that it blocks the final step of acid production. This effect is dose-related and leads to inhibition of both basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion irrespective of the stimulus. Lansoprazole does not exhibit anticholinergic or histamine type-2 antagonist activity.
Antisecretory Activity: After oral administration, lansoprazole was shown to significantly decrease the basal acid output and significantly increase the mean gastric pH and percent of time the gastric pH was greater than 3 and greater than 4. Lansoprazole also significantly reduced meal-stimulated gastric acid output and secretion volume, as well as pentagastrin-stimulated acid output. In patients with hypersecretion of acid, lansoprazole significantly reduced basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Lansoprazole inhibited the normal increases in secretion volume, acidity and acid output induced by insulin.
The intragastric pH results of a five-day, pharmacodynamic, crossover study of 15 mg and 30 mg of once daily lansoprazole are presented in Table 4:
Table 4: Mean Antisecretory Effects After Single and Multiple Daily PREVACID Dosing
|Parameter||Baseline Value||15 mg||30 mg|
|Day 1||Day 5||Day 1||Day 5|
|NOTE: An intragastric pH of greater than 4 reflects a reduction in gastric acid by 99%.|
|Mean 24-Hour pH||2.1||2.7
|Mean Nighttime pH||1.9||2.4||3.0||2.6||3.8|
|% Time Gastric pH>3||18||33||59||51||72|
|% Time Gastric pH>4||12||22||49||41||66|
After the initial dose in this study, increased gastric pH was seen within 1-2 hours with 30 mg of lansoprazole and 2-3 hours with 15 mg of lansoprazole. After multiple daily dosing, increased gastric pH was seen within the first hour post-dosing with 30 mg of lansoprazole and within 1-2 hours post-dosing with 15 mg of lansoprazole.
Acid suppression may enhance the effect of antimicrobials in eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The percentage of time gastric pH was elevated above 5 and 6 was evaluated in a crossover study of PREVACID given daily, twice daily and three times daily (Table 5).
Table 5: Mean Antisecretory Effects After 5 Days of twice daily and three times daily Dosing
|Parameter||30 mg daily||15 mg twice daily||30 mg twice daily||30 mg three times daily|
|% Time Gastric pH>5||43||47||59(p<0.05) versus PREVACID 30 mg daily||77
|% Time Gastric pH>6||20||23||28||45|
The inhibition of gastric acid secretion as measured by intragastric pH gradually returned to normal over two to four days after multiple doses. There was no indication of rebound gastric acidity.
Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) Cell Effects
During lifetime exposure of rats with up to 150 mg/kg/day of lansoprazole dosed seven days per week, marked hypergastrinemia was observed followed by ECL cell proliferation and formation of carcinoid tumors, especially in female rats. Gastric biopsy specimens from the body of the stomach from approximately 150 patients treated continuously with lansoprazole for at least one year did not show evidence of ECL cell effects similar to those seen in rat studies. Longer term data are needed to rule out the possibility of an increased risk of the development of gastric tumors in patients receiving long-term therapy with lansoprazole. [See Nonclinical Toxicology]
Other Gastric Effects in Humans
Lansoprazole did not significantly affect mucosal blood flow in the fundus of the stomach. Due to the normal physiologic effect caused by the inhibition of gastric acid secretion, a decrease of about 17% in blood flow in the antrum, pylorus, and duodenal bulb was seen. Lansoprazole significantly slowed the gastric emptying of digestible solids. Lansoprazole increased serum pepsinogen levels and decreased pepsin activity under basal conditions and in response to meal stimulation or insulin injection. As with other agents that elevate intragastric pH, increases in gastric pH were associated with increases in nitrate-reducing bacteria and elevation of nitrite concentration in gastric juice in patients with gastric ulcer. No significant increase in nitrosamine concentrations was observed.
Serum Gastrin Effects
In over 2100 patients, median fasting serum gastrin levels increased 50% to 100% from baseline but remained within normal range after treatment with 15 to 60 mg of oral lansoprazole. These elevations reached a plateau within two months of therapy and returned to pretreatment levels within four weeks after discontinuation of therapy.
Human studies for up to one year have not detected any clinically significant effects on the endocrine system. Hormones studied include testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), prolactin, cortisol, estradiol, insulin, aldosterone, parathormone, glucagon, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and somatotropic hormone (STH). Lansoprazole in oral doses of 15 to 60 mg for up to one year had no clinically significant effect on sexual function. In addition, lansoprazole in oral doses of 15 to 60 mg for two to eight weeks had no clinically significant effect on thyroid function. In 24-month carcinogenicity studies in Sprague-Dawley rats with daily lansoprazole dosages up to 150 mg/kg, proliferative changes in the Leydig cells of the testes, including benign neoplasm, were increased compared to control rats.
No systemic effects of lansoprazole on the central nervous system, lymphoid, hematopoietic, renal, hepatic, cardiovascular, or respiratory systems have been found in humans. Among 56 patients who had extensive baseline eye evaluations, no visual toxicity was observed after lansoprazole treatment (up to 180 mg/day) for up to 58 months. After lifetime lansoprazole exposure in rats, focal pancreatic atrophy, diffuse lymphoid hyperplasia in the thymus, and spontaneous retinal atrophy were seen.
Lansoprazole, clarithromycin and/or amoxicillin have been shown to be active against most strains of Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. [See Indications and Usage]
Helicobacter pylori Pretreatment Resistance
Clarithromycin pretreatment resistance (≥2.0 µg/mL) was 9.5% (91/960) by E-test and 11.3% (12/106) by agar dilution in the dual and triple therapy clinical trials (M93-125, M93-130, M93-131, M95-392, and M95-399).
Amoxicillin pretreatment susceptible isolates (≤0.25 µg/mL) occurred in 97.8% (936/957) and 98.0% (98/100) of the patients in the dual and triple therapy clinical trials by E-test and agar dilution, respectively. Twenty-one of 957 patients (2.2%) by E-test and 2 of 100 patients (2.0%) by agar dilution had amoxicillin pretreatment MICs of greater than 0.25 µg/mL. One patient on the 14-day triple therapy regimen had an unconfirmed pretreatment amoxicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of greater than 256 µg/mL by E-test and the patient was eradicated of H. pylori (Table 6) .
Table 6: Clarithromycin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriological OutcomesIncludes only patients with pretreatment clarithromycin susceptibility test results
|Clarithromycin Pretreatment Results||Clarithromycin Post-treatment Results|
| H. pylori negative – eradicated|| H. pylori positive – not eradicated|
|Post-treatment susceptibility results|
|Triple Therapy 14-Day (lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily /amoxicillin 1 gm twice daily /clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily)|
(M95-399, M93-131, M95-392)
|Triple Therapy 10-Day (lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily /amoxicillin 1 gm twice daily /clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily) |
Patients not eradicated of H. pylori following lansoprazole/amoxicillin/clarithromycin triple therapy will likely have clarithromycin resistant H. pylori. Therefore, for those patients who fail therapy, clarithromycin susceptibility testing should be done when possible. Patients with clarithromycin resistant H. pylori should not be treated with lansoprazole/amoxicillin/clarithromycin triple therapy or with regimens which include clarithromycin as the sole antimicrobial agent.
Amoxicillin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriological Outcomes: In the dual and triple therapy clinical trials, 82.6% (195/236) of the patients that had pretreatment amoxicillin susceptible MICs (≤0.25 µg/mL) were eradicated of H. pylori. Of those with pretreatment amoxicillin MICs of greater than 0.25 µg/mL, three of six had the H. pylori eradicated. A total of 30% (21/70) of the patients failed lansoprazole 30 mg three times daily /amoxicillin 1 gm three times daily dual therapy and a total of 12.8% (22/172) of the patients failed the 10- and 14-day triple therapy regimens. Post-treatment susceptibility results were not obtained on 11 of the patients who failed therapy. Nine of the 11 patients with amoxicillin post-treatment MICs that failed the triple therapy regimen also had clarithromycin resistant H. pylori isolates.
Susceptibility Test for Helicobacter pylori: The reference methodology for susceptibility testing of H. pylori is agar dilution MICs.1 One to three microliters of an inoculum equivalent to a No. 2 McFarland standard (1 × 107 – 1 × 108 CFU/mL for H. pylori) are inoculated directly onto freshly prepared antimicrobial-containing Mueller-Hinton agar plates with 5% aged defibrinated sheep blood (≥ 2 weeks old). The agar dilution plates are incubated at 35°C in a microaerobic environment produced by a gas generating system suitable for campylobacters.
After 3 days of incubation, the MICs are recorded as the lowest concentration of antimicrobial agent required to inhibit growth of the organism. The clarithromycin and amoxicillin MIC values should be interpreted according to the following criteria (Table 7):
(µg/mL)These are tentative breakpoints for the agar dilution methodology and they should not be used to interpret results obtained using alternative methods.
|Amoxicillin MIC |
(µg/mL)There were not enough organisms with MICs greater than 0.25 µg/mL to determine a resistance breakpoint.
Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. Standard clarithromycin and amoxicillin powders should provide the following MIC values (Table 8):
|Microorganism||Antimicrobial Agent||MIC (µg/mL)These are quality control ranges for the agar dilution methodology and they should not be used to control test results obtained using alternative methods.|
| H. pylori ATCC 43504||Clarithromycin||0.015-0.12 µg/mL|
| H. pylori ATCC 43504||Amoxicillin||0.015-0.12 µg/mL|
PREVACID Delayed-Release Capsules, PREVACID SoluTab Delayed-Release Orally Disintegrating Tablets and PREVACID for Delayed-Release Oral Suspension contain an enteric-coated granule formulation of lansoprazole. Absorption of lansoprazole begins only after the granules leave the stomach. Absorption is rapid, with mean peak plasma levels of lansoprazole occurring after approximately 1.7 hours. After a single-dose administration of 15 mg to 60 mg of oral lansoprazole, the peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of lansoprazole and the area under the plasma concentration curves (AUCs) of lansoprazole were approximately proportional to the administered dose. Lansoprazole does not accumulate and its pharmacokinetics are unaltered by multiple dosing.
Absorption: The absorption of lansoprazole is rapid, with the mean Cmax occurring approximately 1.7 hours after oral dosing, and the absolute bioavailability is over 80%. In healthy subjects, the mean (±SD) plasma half-life was 1.5 (±1.0) hours. Both the Cmax and AUC are diminished by about 50% to 70% if lansoprazole is given 30 minutes after food, compared to the fasting condition. There is no significant food effect if lansoprazole is given before meals.
Distribution: Lansoprazole is 97% bound to plasma proteins. Plasma protein binding is constant over the concentration range of 0.05 to 5.0 µg/mL.
Metabolism: Lansoprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver. Two metabolites have been identified in measurable quantities in plasma (the hydroxylated sulfinyl and sulfone derivatives of lansoprazole). These metabolites have very little or no antisecretory activity. Lansoprazole is thought to be transformed into two active species which inhibit acid secretion by blocking the proton pump [(H+, K+)-ATPase enzyme system] at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. The two active species are not present in the systemic circulation. The plasma elimination half-life of lansoprazole is less than 2 hours while the acid inhibitory effect lasts more than 24 hours. Therefore, the plasma elimination half-life of lansoprazole does not reflect its duration of suppression of gastric acid secretion.
Elimination: Following single-dose oral administration of PREVACID, virtually no unchanged lansoprazole was excreted in the urine. In one study, after a single oral dose of 14C-lansoprazole, approximately one-third of the administered radiation was excreted in the urine and two-thirds was recovered in the feces. This implies a significant biliary excretion of the lansoprazole metabolites.
One to 17 years of age
The pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole were studied in pediatric patients with GERD aged 1 to 11 years and 12 to 17 years in two separate clinical studies. In children aged 1 to 11 years, lansoprazole was dosed 15 mg daily for subjects weighing ≤ 30 kg and 30 mg daily for subjects weighing greater than 30 kg. Mean Cmax and AUC values observed on Day 5 of dosing were similar between the two dose groups and were not affected by weight or age within each weight-adjusted dose group used in the study. In adolescent subjects aged 12 to 17 years, subjects were randomized to receive lansoprazole at 15 mg or 30 mg daily. Mean Cmax and AUC values of lansoprazole were not affected by body weight or age; and nearly dose-proportional increases in mean Cmax and AUC values were observed between the two dose groups in the study. Overall, lansoprazole pharmacokinetics in pediatric patients aged 1 to 17 years were similar to those observed in healthy adult subjects.
Neonate to less than one year of age
Refer to Section 8.4 for the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole in pediatric patients with GERD aged less than 28 days and 1 to 11 months.
Geriatric Use: The clearance of lansoprazole is decreased in the elderly, with elimination half-life increased approximately 50% to 100%. Because the mean half-life in the elderly remains between 1.9 to 2.9 hours, repeated once daily dosing does not result in accumulation of lansoprazole. Peak plasma levels were not increased in the elderly. No dosage adjustment is necessary in the elderly [See Use in Specific Populations].
Renal Impairment: In patients with severe renal impairment, plasma protein binding decreased by 1.0%-1.5% after administration of 60 mg of lansoprazole. Patients with renal impairment had a shortened elimination half-life and decreased total AUC (free and bound). The AUC for free lansoprazole in plasma, however, was not related to the degree of renal impairment; and the Cmax and tmax (time to reach the maximum concentration) were not different than the Cmax and tmax from subjects with normal renal function. No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with renal impairment [See Use in Specific Populations (8.6]) .
Hepatic Impairment: In patients with various degrees of chronic hepatic impairment, the mean plasma half-life of lansoprazole was prolonged from 1.5 hours to 3.2-7.2 hours. An increase in the mean AUC of up to 500% was observed at steady state in hepatically-impaired patients compared to healthy subjects. Consider dose reduction in patients with severe hepatic impairment [See Use in Specific Populations].
Gender: In a study comparing 12 male and 6 female human subjects who received lansoprazole, no gender differences were found in pharmacokinetics and intragastric pH results [See Use in Specific Populations].
It is theoretically possible that PREVACID may interfere with the absorption of other drugs where gastric pH is an important determinant of bioavailability (e.g., ketoconazole, ampicillin esters, iron salts, digoxin).
PREVACID is metabolized through the cytochrome P450 system, specifically through the CYP3A and CYP2C19 isozymes. Studies have shown that PREVACID does not have clinically significant interactions with other drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system, such as warfarin, antipyrine, indomethacin, ibuprofen, phenytoin, propranolol, prednisone, diazepam, or clarithromycin in healthy subjects. These compounds are metabolized through various cytochrome P450 isozymes including CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A.
Atazanavir: PREVACID causes long-lasting inhibition of gastric acid secretion. PREVACID substantially decreases the systemic concentrations of the HIV protease inhibitor atazanavir, which is dependent upon the presence of gastric acid for absorption, and may result in a loss of therapeutic effect of atazanavir and the development of HIV resistance. Therefore, PREVACID, or other proton pump inhibitors, should not be co-administered with atazanavir.
Theophylline: When PREVACID was administered concomitantly with theophylline (CYP1A2, CYP3A), a minor increase (10%) in the clearance of theophylline was seen. Because of the small magnitude and the direction of the effect on theophylline clearance, this interaction is unlikely to be of clinical concern. Nonetheless, individual patients may require additional titration of their theophylline dosage when PREVACID is started or stopped to ensure clinically effective blood levels.
Warfarin: In a study of healthy subjects neither the pharmacokinetics of warfarin enantiomers nor prothrombin time were affected following single or multiple 60 mg doses of lansoprazole. However, there have been reports of increased International Normalized Ratio (INR) and prothrombin time in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors, including PREVACID, and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with proton pump inhibitors and warfarin concomitantly may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time.
Methotrexate and 7-hydromethotrexate: In an open-label, single-arm, eight-day, pharmacokinetic study of 28 adult rheumatoid arthritis patients (who required the chronic use of 7.5 to 15 mg of methotrexate given weekly), administration of 7 days of naproxen 500 mg twice daily and PREVACID 30 mg daily had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate and 7-hydroxymethotrexate. While this study was not designed to assess the safety of this combination of drugs, no major adverse reactions were noted.
Amoxicillin: PREVACID has also been shown to have no clinically significant interaction with amoxicillin.
Sucralfate: In a single-dose crossover study examining PREVACID 30 mg and omeprazole 20 mg each administered alone and concomitantly with sucralfate 1 gram, absorption of the proton pump inhibitors was delayed and their bioavailability was reduced by 17% and 16%, respectively, when administered concomitantly with sucralfate. Therefore, proton pump inhibitors should be taken at least 30 minutes prior to sucralfate. In clinical trials, antacids were administered concomitantly with PREVACID and there was no evidence of a change in the efficacy of PREVACID.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
In two 24-month carcinogenicity studies, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with oral lansoprazole doses of 5 to 150 mg/kg/day - about 1.6 to 49 times the recommended human dose of (30 mg/day) on a body surface area (BSA) basis. Lansoprazole produced dose-related gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia and ECL cell carcinoids in both male and female rats. It also increased the incidence of intestinal metaplasia of the gastric epithelium in both sexes. In male rats, lansoprazole produced a dose-related increase of testicular interstitial cell adenomas. The incidence of these adenomas in rats receiving doses of 15 to 150 mg/kg/day (5 to 49 times the recommended human dose based on BSA) exceeded the low background incidence (range = 1.4 to 10%) for this strain of rat. In addition, in a one-year toxicity study, testicular interstitial cell adenoma occurred in 1 of 30 rats treated with 50 mg/kg/day of lansoprazole (16 times the recommended human dose based on BSA).
In a 24-month carcinogenicity study, CD-1 mice were treated with oral lansoprazole doses of 15 to 600 mg/kg/day, 2 to 97 times the recommended human dose based on BSA. Lansoprazole produced a dose-related increased incidence of gastric ECL cell hyperplasia. It also produced an increased incidence of liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma plus carcinoma). The tumor incidences in male mice treated with 300 and 600 mg/kg/day (49 to 97 times the recommended human dose based on BSA) and female mice treated with 150 to 600 mg/kg/day (24 to 97 times the recommended human dose based on BSA) exceeded the ranges of background incidences in historical controls for this strain of mice. Lansoprazole treatment produced adenoma of rete testis in male mice receiving 75 to 600 mg/kg/day (12 to 97 times the recommended human dose based on BSA).
A 26-week p53 (+/-) transgenic mouse carcinogenicity study was not positive.
Lansoprazole was not genotoxic in the Ames test, the ex vivo rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) test, the in vivo mouse micronucleus test, or the rat bone marrow cell chromosomal aberration test. It was positive in in vitro human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assays.
Lansoprazole at oral doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (49 times the recommended human dose based on BSA) was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance of male and female rats.