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Plasbumin-25 (Albumin) - Description and Clinical Pharmacology

 
 



DESCRIPTION

Albumin (Human) 25%, USP (Plasbumin®-25) is made from pooled human venous plasma using the Cohn cold ethanol fractionation process. Part of the fractionation may be performed by another licensed manufacturer. It is prepared in accordance with the applicable requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Plasbumin-25 is a 25% sterile solution of albumin in an aqueous diluent. The preparation is stabilized with 0.02 M sodium caprylate and 0.02 M acetyltryptophan. The approximate sodium content of the product is 145 mEq/L. It contains no preservative. Plasbumin-25 must be administered intravenously.

Each vial of Plasbumin-25 is heat-treated at 60°C for 10 hours against the possibility of transmitting the hepatitis viruses.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Each 20 mL vial of Plasbumin-25 supplies the oncotic equivalent of approximately 100 mL citrated plasma; 50 mL supplies the oncotic equivalent of approximately 250 mL citrated plasma.

When administered intravenously to an adequately hydrated subject, the oncotic (colloid osmotic) effect of 20 mL Plasbumin-25 is such that it will draw approximately a further 70 mL of fluid from the extravascular tissues into the circulation within 15 minutes, 1 thus increasing the total blood volume and reducing both hemoconcentration and whole blood viscosity. Accordingly, the main clinical indications are for hypoproteinemic states involving reduced oncotic pressure, with or without accompanying edema.2 Plasbumin-25 can also be used as a plasma volume expander.

Albumin is a transport protein and it may be useful in severe hemolytic disease in the neonate who is awaiting exchange transfusion. The infused albumin may reduce the level of free bilirubin in the blood.3

This could also be of importance in acute liver failure where albumin might serve the dual role of supporting plasma oncotic pressure, as well as binding excessive plasma bilirubin.2

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