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Pipracil (Piperacillin Sodium) - Summary

 
 



PIPRACIL SUMMARY

PIPRACIL®
(piperacillin for injection)
For Intravenous and Intramuscular Use

PIPRACIL, sterile piperacillin sodium, is a semisynthetic broad-spectrum penicillin for parenteral use derived from D(-)-α-aminobenzylpenicillin.

Therapeutic: PIPRACIL is indicated for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below:

Intra-Abdominal Infections including hepatobiliary and surgical infections caused by E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterococci, Clostridium spp., anaerobic cocci, or Bacteroides spp., including B. fragilis.

Urinary Tract Infections caused by E. coli, Klebsiella spp., P. aeruginosa, Proteus spp., including P. mirabilis, or enterococci.

Gynecologic Infections including endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, pelvic cellulitis caused by Bacteroides spp., including B. fragilis, anaerobic cocci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or enterococci (E. faecalis).

Septicemia including bacteremia caused by E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Serratia  spp., P. mirabilis, S. pneumoniae, enterococci, P. aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp., or anaerobic cocci.

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections caused by E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Paeruginosa , Serratia spp., H. influenzae, Bacteroides spp., or anaerobic cocci. Although improvement has been noted in patients with cystic fibrosis, lasting bacterial eradication may not necessarily be achieved.

Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by E. coli , Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., Acinetobacter  spp., Enterobacter spp., P. aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, Providencia rettgeri, Proteus vulgaris, P. mirabilis, Bacteroides spp., including B. fragilis, anaerobic cocci, or enterococci.

Bone and Joint Infections caused by P. aeruginosa , enterococci, Bacteroides spp., or anaerobic cocci.

Uncomplicated Gonococcal Urethritis caused by N. gonorrhoeae.

PIPRACIL has also been shown to be clinically effective for the treatment of infections at various sites caused by Streptococcus species including S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae; however, infections caused by these organisms are ordinarily treated with more narrow spectrum penicillins. Because of its broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, PIPRACIL is particularly useful for the treatment of mixed infections and presumptive therapy prior to the identification of the causative organisms.

Also, PIPRACIL may be administered as single drug therapy in some situations where normally two antibiotics might be employed.

Piperacillin has been successfully used with aminoglycosides, especially in patients with impaired host defenses. Both drugs should be used in full therapeutic doses.

Appropriate cultures should be made for susceptibility testing before initiating therapy and therapy adjusted, if appropriate, once the results are known.

Prophylaxis: PIPRACIL is indicated for prophylactic use in surgery including intra-abdominal (gastrointestinal and biliary) procedures, vaginal hysterectomy, abdominal hysterectomy, and cesarean section. Effective prophylactic use depends on the time of administration; PIPRACIL should be given one-half to one hour before the operation so that effective levels can be achieved in the site prior to the procedure.

The prophylactic use of piperacillin should be stopped within 24 hours, since continuing administration of any antibiotic increases the possibility of adverse reactions, but in the majority of surgical procedures, does not reduce the incidence of subsequent infections. If there are signs of infection, specimens for culture and susceptibility testing should be obtained for identification of the causative microorganism so that appropriate therapy can be instituted.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of PIPRACIL and other antibacterial drugs, PIPRACIL should only be used to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.


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NEWS HIGHLIGHTS

Published Studies Related to Pipracil (Piperacillin)

Piperacillin/tazobactam monotherapy versus piperacillin/tazobactam plus amikacin as initial empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia in children with acute leukemia. [2011.05]
The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZO) versus PIP/TAZO plus amikacin in febrile neutropenic children with acute leukemia (AL). Children with AL who had febrile neutropenic episodes were randomized to treatment with PIP/TAZO versus PIP/TAZO plus amikacin...

Microbiological equivalence of bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of the sera from healthy volunteers receiving generic piperacillin/tazobactam (Pipertaz) and original piperacillin/tazobactam (Tazocin). [2011.02]
CONCLUSION: The sera from healthy volunteers receiving Pipertaz contain bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities not significantly different from those receiving Tazocin.

Piperacillin-tazobactam versus carbapenem therapy with and without amikacin as empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia in cancer patients: results of an open randomized trial at a university hospital. [2010.08]
OBJECTIVE: Empirical beta-lactam monotherapy has become the standard therapy in febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of piperacillin-tazobactam versus carbapenem therapy with or without amikacin in adult patients with febrile neutropenia... CONCLUSIONS: The effect of empirical regimen of piperacillin-tazobactam regimen is equivalent to carbapenem in adult febrile neutropenic patients.

Piperacillin/tazobactam versus imipenem/cilastatin for severe diabetic foot infections: a prospective, randomized clinical trial in a university hospital. [2010.08]
In this prospective, randomized, open-label clinical trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of two antibiotic regimens for severe diabetic foot infections (DFI). Sixty-two in-patients with DFI received either piperacillin/tazobactam (Pip-Tazo, n = 30) (4.5 g intravenously every 8h) or imipenem/cilastatin (IMP, n = 32) (0.5 g intravenously every 6h)...

Low-dose beta-lactam plus amikacin in febrile neutropenia: cefepime vs. piperacillin/tazobactam, a randomized trial. [2010.04]
Patients with fever and granulocytopenia are at risk of developing severe infection. We performed a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose cefepime plus amikacin (C-A) compared to low-dose piperacillin/tazobactam plus amikacin (PT-A)...

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Clinical Trials Related to Pipracil (Piperacillin)

Piperacillin-Tazobactam Continuous Versus Intermittent Infusion for Pseudomonas Aeruginosa [Recruiting]
The main objective is to verify that the administration of piperacillin / tazobactam administered by continuous infusion to treat complicated infections or with known or suspected nosocomial isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is superior in efficacy to a 30% higher dose administered in conventional short infusion.

The secondary objectives were compared between the following variables:

- Microbiological response at 3 days of starting treatment

- Time to microbiological cure

- Clinical response at 3 days of starting treatment

- Time to achieve defervescence

- To examine the relationship between pharmacokinetic variables and parameters of

efficacy and safety

- To test the hypothesis that continuous infusion maintains adequate plasma drug levels

compared with levels achieved with intermittent administration.

- Cost-effectiveness analysis

- Occurrence of adverse effects

To this end, we designed a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double blind, comparing both forms of administration in patients with complicated or nosocomial infection with or without isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Patients who are candidates for inclusion are classified according to APACHE II and to have or not isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Subsequently be randomized to receive piperacillin-tazobactam by continuous infusion or short. Primary endpoint was measured as the ultimate effectiveness of treatment and other variables such as high efficiency, safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmacoeconomic.

Assessment of the Optimal Dosing of Piperacillin-tazobactam in Intensive Care Unit Patients: Extended Versus Continuous Infusion [Recruiting]
Piperacillin-tazobactam is an acylureido-penicillin-beta-lactamase inhibitor combination and is frequently used in the empirical treatment of hospital-acquired infections because of its antipseudomonal activity. Similar to other beta-lactam antibiotics, piperacillin-tazobactam exhibits time-dependent killing and the T > MIC appears to be the best outcome predictor. Because a majority of infections are treated empirically, it is necessary to achieve a T > MIC equal to 50% of the dosing interval (50% T > MIC) against the most likely pathogens, including those with only moderate susceptibility The aim of this study is to compare the same dose of piperacillin/tazobactam administered by an extended infusion versus a continuous infusion. A pharmacokinetic study will be performed in patients treated by extended (loading dose 4 G/30 min followed by 4 X 4 G /3h) and continuous infusion (loading dose 4 G/30 min followed by 16G /24h).

A population pharmacokinetic analysis with Monte Carlo simulations will be used to determine 95% probability of target attainment (PTA95) versus MIC

Continuous Infusion Piperacillin-tazobactam for the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis [Recruiting]
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder leading to chronic pulmonary inflammation and infection. A majority of people with cystic fibrosis have large quantities of bacteria residing in their lungs. One of the most common and harmful bacteria is called Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Patients with cystic fibrosis require frequent therapy with intravenous (I. V.) antibiotics to treat lung infections thought to be caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One of the antibiotics frequently used to treat this bacteria is piperacillin-tazobactam. Piperacillin-tazobactam is thought to be the most effective when there is a constant level of drug in the body. The standard way to administer piperacillin-tazobactam is to give several grams 4 times each day as a 30 minute infusion. An alternative way to give piperacillin-tazobactam is by a continuous infusion; a continuous infusion will make it more likely that drug will remain at a constant level in the body. The objective of this study is to determine if administering piperacillin-tazobactam as a continuous infusion is more effective at treating people having a pulmonary exacerbation of cystic fibrosis than a standard 30 minute infusion, 4 times a day.

Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin/Tazobactam in Patients Treated by Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy [Recruiting]
The pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam will be evaluated in twenty septic patients with renal failure undergoing continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration.

Prophylactic Piperacillin/Tazobactam in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation [Not yet recruiting]
Neutropenia is very common in patients received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with median duration of about 14 days. Almost all neutropenia will suffer from febrile without prophylactic antibiotics. IDSA recommended fluoroquinolones as prophylaxis in neutropenia patients of high risks, while in China, major pathogens possess high resistance to fluoroquinolones. It is not clear whether prophylaxis is of benefit, nor the appropriate prophylaxis regimen.

The current study will evaluate the three different regimen:

1. No prophylaxic antibiotic

2. Piperacillin as prophylaxis for neutropenia patients. Piperacillin has anti-pseudomonas activity.

3. Piperacillin/tazobactam as prophylaxis for neutropenia patients. Piperacillin/tazobactam has highest susceptibility rate among common anti-pseudomonas antibiotics.

more trials >>


Page last updated: 2011-12-09

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