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Parcopa (Carbidopa / Levodopa) - Summary



(carbidopa-levodopa orally disintegrating tablets)

PARCOPA™ (carbidopa-levodopa orally disintegrating tablets) is a combination of carbidopa and levodopa for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and syndrome. PARCOPA™ is an orally administered formulation of carbidopa-levodopa which rapidly disintegrates on the tongue and does not require water to aid dissolution or swallowing.

PARCOPA™ is indicated in the treatment of the symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (paralysis agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism, and symptomatic parkinsonism which may follow injury to the nervous system by carbon monoxide intoxication and/or manganese intoxication. PARCOPA™ is indicated in these conditions to permit the administration of lower doses of levodopa with reduced nausea and vomiting, with more rapid dosage titration, with a somewhat smoother response, and with supplemental pyridoxine (vitamin B6).

In some patients, a somewhat smoother antiparkinsonian effect results from therapy with carbidopa-levodopa than with levodopa. However, patients with markedly irregular ("on-off") responses to levodopa have not been shown to benefit from carbidopa-levodopa therapy.

Although the administration of carbidopa permits control of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease with much lower doses of levodopa, there is no conclusive evidence at present that this is beneficial other than in reducing nausea and vomiting, permitting more rapid titration, and providing a somewhat smoother response to levodopa.

Certain patients who responded poorly to levodopa have improved when carbidopa-levodopa was substituted. This is most likely due to decreased peripheral decarboxylation of levodopa which results from administration of carbidopa rather than to a primary effect of carbidopa on the nervous system. Carbidopa has not been shown to enhance the intrinsic efficacy of levodopa in parkinsonian syndromes.

In considering whether to give PARCOPA™ to patients already on levodopa who have nausea and/or vomiting, the practitioner should be aware that, while many patients may be expected to improve, some do not. Since one cannot predict which patients are likely to improve, this can only be determined by a trial of therapy. It should be further noted that in controlled trials comparing carbidopa-levodopa with levodopa, about half of the patients with nausea and/or vomiting on levodopa improved spontaneously despite being retained on the same dose of levodopa during the controlled portion of the trial.

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Published Studies Related to Parcopa (Carbidopa / Levodopa)

Extended-release carbidopa-levodopa (IPX066) compared with immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa in patients with Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations: a phase 3 randomised, double-blind trial. [2013]
motor fluctuations... INTERPRETATION: Extended-release carbidopa-levodopa might be a useful treatment

Comparison of orally dissolving carbidopa/levodopa (Parcopa) to conventional oral carbidopa/levodopa: A single-dose, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. [2010.12.15]
Levodopa use in fluctuating Parkinson's disease (PD) is complicated by an inconsistent and prolonged onset to clinical improvement.This small pilot study did not show significant group differences favoring OD C/L; however, larger studies may be justified, and individual patients may benefit.

Night-time bioavailability of levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone is higher compared to controlled-release levodopa/carbidopa. [2010.11]
OBJECTIVE: Controlled-release levodopa/carbidopa (CR-LC) is often used to provide prolonged control of night-time motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone (LCE) provides higher bioavailability of levodopa compared with levodopa/carbidopa formulations and has been shown to be effective in PD patients with wearing-off symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability of levodopa after a single evening dose (administered at 10 p.m.) of LCE 200 or CR-LC 200... CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that a single bedtime dose of LCE 200 provides higher bioavailability of levodopa compared to CR-LC 200.

Reducing dosing frequency of carbidopa/levodopa: double-blind crossover study comparing twice-daily bilayer formulation of carbidopa/levodopa (IPX054) versus 4 daily doses of standard carbidopa/levodopa in stable Parkinson disease patients. [2009.07]
OBJECTIVE: We compared IPX054, a bilayer tablet of immediate- and extended-release carbidopa/levodopa (CD/LD) given twice daily to standard CD/LD given 4 times daily in patients with stable Parkinson disease (PD)... CONCLUSIONS: In stable PD patients, no difference was detected between twice-daily treatment with IPX054 and CD/LD given 4 times daily. In this group, substitution with IPX054 reduced dosing frequency while maintaining CD/LD efficacy. In clinical practice, this ease of administration may offer improved treatment compliance.

Efficacy of levodopa and carbidopa on visual function in patients with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. [2005.03]
The benefit of levodopa and carbidopa therapy in improving visual function in patients with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic neuropathy (NAION) was evaluated. Twenty-four subjects with NAION were randomly selected to receive either levodopa-carbidopa or a placebo... Levodopa and carbidopa had no therapeutic effect on visual recovery in our patients with NAION.

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Clinical Trials Related to Parcopa (Carbidopa / Levodopa)

A Single Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Pilot Trial Comparing the Onset of Action of Parcopa™ With Sinemet® in Subjects With Stable Parkinson's Disease [Completed]
To test whether Parcopa, a new Orally Disintegrating Tablet of Carbidopa-Levodopa, has a faster onset of action, changes in the UPDRS Motor Exam score at intervals after a single dose of Parcopa or Sinemet are being compared in 10 subjects with Parkinson's disease. Subjects 40 years or older having idiopathic PD with Hoehn and Yahr state II or III are eligible if taking a stable dose of < 200 mg carbidopa and < 2000 mg levodopa daily. At both treatment visits, either Parcopa or Sinemet, plus a placebo of the opposite tablet (ODT or conventional) are administered. The dose is the same as the subject's prestudy regimen. The primary efficacy variable, time to onset of action, is the first postdose time when a 30% decrease (30% improvement) in the total score is achieved. All UPDRS evaluations are done by a rater blinded to the active treatment received by the subject.

Study of Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Levodopa-Carbidopa Intestinal Gel in Levodopa-Responsive Parkinson's Subjects [Recruiting]

The primary objective of this study will be to demonstrate the superiority of levodopa -

carbidopa intestinal gel over treatment with optimized oral levodopa/carbidopa during 12 weeks. The study duration is 4 months.

Study of Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Levodopa-Carbidopa Intestinal Gel in Levodopa-Responsive Parkinson's Subjects [Recruiting]

The primary objective of this study will be to demonstrate the superiority of levodopa -

carbidopa intestinal gel over treatment with optimized oral levodopa/carbidopa during 12 weeks. The study duration is 4 months.

Parcopa Versus Carbidopa-Levodopa in a Single Dose Cross-Over Comparison Study [Recruiting]
To find out if a single dose of Parcopa®, a form of levodopa that dissolves in your mouth, works faster than regular oral levodopa which is swallowed, in fluctuating PD patients.

A Multicenter, Open-Label Trial to Assess Subject Preference of PARCOPA, Carbidopa/Levodopa Orally Disintegrating Tablets, Compared to Conventional Carbidopa/Levodopa Tablets in Subjects With Stable Parkinson's Disease [Completed]
The objective of this trial was to assess subject preference for PARCOPA, carbidopa/levodopa Orally Disintegrating Tablets (ODT), compared with conventional carbidopa/levodopa tablets, in subjects with stable Parkinson's disease.

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Page last updated: 2014-11-30

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