Serious Cardiopulmonary Reactions
Serious cardiopulmonary reactions, including fatalities, have occurred during or following perflutren-containing microsphere administration. The risk for these reactions may be increased among patients with pulmonary hypertension or unstable cardiopulmonary conditions (acute myocardial infarction, acute coronary artery syndromes, worsening or unstable congestive heart failure, serious ventricular arrhythmias or respiratory failure, including patients receiving mechanical ventilation). In these patients, monitor vital signs, electrocardiography, and cutaneous oxygen saturation during and for at least 30 minutes after OPTISON administration. In the absence of these underlying conditions, observe patients closely during and following OPTISON administration.
In postmarketing use, uncommon but serious reactions observed during or shortly following perflutren-containing microsphere administration included fatal cardiac or respiratory arrest, loss of consciousness, convulsions, symptomatic arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation), hypotension, respiratory distress or cardiac ischemia (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Always have cardiopulmonary resuscitation personnel and equipment readily available prior to OPTISON administration and monitor all patients for acute reactions.
Postmarketing reports of acute anaphylactoid reactions including shock, bronchospasm, upper airway swelling, loss of consciousness, urticaria and pruritus, have occurred in patients with no prior exposure to perflutren-containing microsphere products. Monitor all patients for signs and symptoms of anaphylactoid reactions (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Systemic Embolization of OPTISON in Patients with Cardiac Shunts
In patients with right-to-left, bi-directional, or transient right-to-left cardiac shunts perflutren-containing microspheres can bypass the pulmonary particle-filtering mechanisms and directly enter the arterial circulation resulting in microvascular occlusion and ischemia. Do not administer OPTISON by intra-arterial injection (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
High Ultrasound Mechanical Index
High ultrasound mechanical index values may cause microsphere cavitation or rupture and lead to ventricular arrhythmias. Additionally, end-systolic triggering with high mechanical indices has been reported to cause ventricular arrhythmias. The safety of OPTISON at mechanical indices greater than 0.8 has not been evaluated. The safety of OPTISON with the use of end-systolic triggering has not been evaluated.
This product contains albumin, a derivative of human blood. Based on effective donor screening and product manufacturing processes, it carries an extremely remote risk for transmission of viral disease. A theoretical risk for transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) also is considered extremely remote. No cases of transmission of viral disease or CJD have ever been identified for albumin.
Immunologic tests of serum immunoglobulins, cytokines, and complement were monitored in a 3 week study of 20 healthy volunteers and 30 patients who received OPTISON or a 1% albumin control. Clinically relevant changes in the measured parameters were not noted. In another study 5 subjects received a skin test with OPTISON one year after receiving OPTISON. One subject had a positive skin test and was not given a repeat dose of OPTISON.
Information for Patients
Patients receiving OPTISON should be instructed to inform their healthcare provider if they:
- have a congenital heart defect, or recent worsening of heart or lung conditions;
- have had reactions to blood, blood products,albumin or a prior OPTISON administration (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS);
- may be pregnant or are nursing an infant.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility
Animal studies were not carried out to determine the carcinogenic potential of OPTISON.
The result of the following genotoxicity studies with OPTISON were negative: 1) Salmonella/Escherichia coli reverse mutation assay, 2) in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration assay using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) with and without metabolic activation, 3) CHO/HGPRT forward mutation assay, and 4) in vivo mammalian micronucleus assay.
Pregnancy Category C
OPTISON administered intravenously to rats during organogenesis at doses of 0.25, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg/day was fetotoxic at 0.25 and 5.0 mL/kg (approximately 0.2 and 5 times the recommended maximum human dose, respectively, based on body surface area). Fetotoxicity was characterized by an increased incidence of reversible delayed pelvic ossification, the incidence of which was not related to dose. Signs of maternal toxicity at 5 mL/kg included respiratory and motor signs. Maternal death occurred at 10 mL/kg. A no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for fetotoxicity was not determined. Teratogenic effects were not observed at doses up to 10 mL/kg/day. The NOAEL for maternal toxicity was 0.25 mL/kg.
OPTISON administered intravenously to rabbits during organogenesis at doses of 0.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mL/kg/day was embryofetal toxic at 2.5 and 5.0 mL/kg (approximately 5 and 10 times the recommended maximum human dose, respectively, based on body surface area). Embryofetal toxicity was characterized by a decrease in fetal body weight and an increase in embryofetal death. Teratogenic effects (cleft palates and dilation of the lateral ventricles of the brain associated with skull abnormalities and compression deformities) were observed at 2.5 mL/kg but not 5 mL/kg. Neither the incidence nor the severity of embryofetal toxicity and teratogenicity exhibited a dose-dependent relationship. Maternal toxicity (significant suppression of body weight gain, abnormal stool) was observed at 2.5 and 5.0 mL/kg with the greatest effect observed at 2.5 mL/kg. The NOAEL for embryofetal and maternal toxicity was 0.25 mL/kg (approximately 0.5 times the recommended maximum human dose).
Adequate or well-controlled studies were not conducted in pregnant women. OPTISON should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk caution should be exercised when OPTISON is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and efficacy have not been established in pediatric patients, or in patients with congenital heart disease (see WARNINGS).