A number of substances affect glucose metabolism and may require insulin dose adjustment and particularly close monitoring.
- The following are examples of substances that may reduce insulin requirement: oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), octreotide, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), non-selective beta-blocking agents, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, salicylates, alcohol, sulphonamide antibiotics, anabolic steroids, quinine, quinidine and alpha-adrenergic blocking agents.
- The following are examples of substances that may increase insulin requirement: oral contraceptives, thiazides, glucocorticoids, thryroid hormones and sympathomimetics, growth hormone, diazoxide, asparaginase and nicotinic acid.
- Beta-blocking agents may mask the symptoms of hypoglycemia and delay recovery from hypoglycemia.
- Alcohol may intensify and prolong the hypoglycemic effect of insulin.