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Nifediac (Nifedipine) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Overdosage, etc

 
 



DRUG INTERACTIONS

Drug Interactions:

Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents (see WARNINGS).

Nifedipine is mainly eliminated by metabolism and is a substrate of CYP3A. Inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A4 can impact the exposure to nifedipine and consequently its desirable and undesirable effects. In vitro and in vivo data indicate that nifedipine can inhibit the metabolism of drugs that are substrates of CYP3A, thereby increasing the exposure to other drugs. Nifedipine is a vasodilator, and coadministration of other drugs affecting blood pressure may result in pharmacodynamic interactions.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Antiarrhythmics

Quinidine:Quinidine is a substrate of CYP3A and has been shown to inhibit CYP3A in vitro. Coadministration of multiple doses of quinidine sulfate, 200 mg t.i.d., and nifedipine, 20 mg t.i.d., increased Cmax and AUC of nifedipine in healthy volunteers by factors of 2.30 and 1.37, respectively. The heart rate in the initial interval after drug administration was increased by up to 17.9 beats/minute. The exposure to quinidine was not importantly changed in the presence of nifedipine. Monitoring of heart rate and adjustment of the nifedipine dose, if necessary, are recommended when quinidine is added to a treatment with nifedipine.

Flecainide: There has been too little experience with the coadministration of flecainide with nifedipine to recommend concomitant use.

Calcium Channel Blockers

Diltiazem: Pretreatment of healthy volunteers with 30 mg or 90 mg t.i.d. diltiazem p.o. increased the AUC of nifedipine after a single dose of 20 mg nifedipine by factors of 2.2 and 3.1, respectively. The corresponding Cmax values of nifedipine increased by factors of 2.0 and 1.7, respectively. Caution should be exercised when coadministering diltiazem and nifedipine and a reduction of the dose of nifedipine should be considered.

Verapamil: Verapamil, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, can inhibit the metabolism of nifedipine and increase the exposure to nifedipine during concomitant therapy. Blood pressure should be monitored and reduction of the dose of nifedipine considered.

ACE Inhibitors

Benazepril: In healthy volunteers receiving single dose of 20 mg nifedipine ER and benazepril 20 mg, the plasma concentrations of benazeprilat and nifedipine in the presence and absence of each other were not statistically significantly different. A hypotensive effect was only seen after coadministration of the two drugs. The tachycardic effect of nifedipine was attenuated in the presence of benazepril.

Angiotensin-II Blockers

Irbesartan: In vitro studies show significant inhibition of the formation of oxidized irbesartan metabolites by nifedipine. However, in clinical studies, concomitant nifedipine had no effect on irbesartan pharmacokinetics.

Candesartan: No significant drug interaction has been reported in studies with candesartan cilexitil given together with nifedipine. Because candesartan is not significantly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system and at therapeutic concentrations has no effect on cytochrome P450 enzymes, interactions with drugs that inhibit or are metabolized by those enzymes would not be expected.

Beta-blockers

Nifedipine extended-release tablet was well tolerated when administered in combination with beta-blockers in 187 hypertensive patients in a placebo-controlled clinical trial. However, there have been occasional literature reports suggesting that the combination of nifedipine and beta-adrenergic blocking drugs may increase the likelihood of congestive heart failure, severe hypotension, or exacerbation of angina in patients with cardiovascular disease. Clinical monitoring is recommended, and a dose adjustment of nifedipine should be considered.

Timolol: Hypotension is more likely to occur if dihydropryridine calcium antagonists such as nifedipine are coadministered with timolol.

Central Alpha1-Blockers

Doxazosin: Healthy volunteers participating in a multiple dosedoxazosin-nifedipine interaction study received 2 mg doxazosin q.d. alone or combined with 20 mg nifedipine ER b.i.d. Coadministration of nifedipine resulted in a decrease in AUC and Cmax of doxazosin to 83% and 86% of the values in the absence of nifedipine, respectively. In the presence of doxazosin, AUC and Cmax of nifedipine were increased by factors of 1.13 and 1.23, respectively. Compared to nifedipine monotherapy, blood pressure was lower in the presence of doxazosin. Blood pressure should be monitored when doxazosin is coadministered with nifedipine and dose reduction of nifedipine considered.

Digitalis

Digoxin: Since there have been isolated reports of patients with elevated digoxin levels, and there is a possible interaction between digoxin and nifedipine extended-release tablet, it is recommended that digoxin levels be monitored when initiating, adjusting, and discontinuing nifedipine extended-release tablet to avoid possible over- or under-digitalization.

Antithrombotics

Coumarins:There have been rare reports of increased prothrombin time in patients taking coumarin anticoagulants to whom nifedipine was administered. However, the relationship to nifedipine therapy is uncertain.

Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors

Clopidogrel: No clinically significant pharmacodynamic interactions were observed when clopidrogrel was coadministered with nifedipine.

Tirofiban: Coadministration of nifedipine did not alter the exposure to tirofiban importantly.

Non-Cardiovascular Drugs

Antifungal Drugs

Ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole are CYP3A inhibitors and can inhibit the metabolism of nifedipine and increase the exposure to nifedipine during concomitant therapy. Blood pressure should be monitored and a dose reduction of nifedipine considered.

Antisecretory Drugs

Omeprazole: In healthy volunteers receiving a single dose of 10 mg nifedipine, AUC and Cmax of nifedipine after pretreatment with omeprazole 20 mg q.d. for 8 days were 1.26 and 0.87 times those after pretreatment with placebo. Pretreatment with or coadministration of omeprazole did not impact the effect of nifedipine on blood pressure or heart rate. The impact of omeprazole on nifedipine is not likely to be of clinical relevance.

Pantoprazole: In healthy volunteers the exposure to neither drug was changed significantly in the presence of the other drug.

Ranitidine: Five studies in healthy volunteers investigated the impact of multiple ranitidine doses on the single or multiple dose pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Two studies investigated the impact of coadministered ranitidine on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects on nifedipine. Coadministration of ranitidine did not have relevant effects on the exposure to nifedipine that affected the blood pressure or heart rate in normotensive or hypertensive subjects.

Cimetidine: Five studies in healthy volunteers investigated the impact of multiple cimetidine doses on the single or multiple dose pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Two studies investigated the impact of coadministered cimetidine on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects on nifedipine. In normotensive subjects receiving single doses of 10 mg or multiple doses of up to 20 mg nifedipine t.i.d. alone or together with cimetidine up to 1000 mg/day, the AUC values of nifedipine in the presence of cimetidine were between 1.52 and 2.01 times those in the absence of cimetidine. The Cmax values of nifedipine in the presence of cimetidine were increased by factors ranging between 1.60 and 2.02. The increase in exposure to nifedipine by cimetidine was accompanied by relevant changes in blood pressure or heart rate in normotensive subjects. Hypertensive subjects receiving 10 mg q.d. nifedipine alone or in combination with cimetidine 1000 mg q.d. also experienced relevant changes in blood pressure when cimetidine was added to nifedipine. The interaction between cimetidine and nifedipine is of clinical relevance and blood pressure should be monitored and a reduction of the dose of nifedipine considered.

Antibacterial Drugs

Quinupristin/Dalfopristin: In vitro drug interaction studies have demonstrated that quinupristin/dalfopristin significantly inhibits the CYP3A metabolism of nifedipine. Concomitant administration of quinupristin/dalfopristin and nifedipine (repeated oral dose) in healthy volunteers increased AUC and Cmax for nifedipine by factors of 1.44 and 1.18, respectively, compared to nifedipine monotherapy. Upon coadministration of quinupristin/dalfopristin with nifedipine, blood pressure should be monitored and a reduction of the dose of nifedipine considered.

Erythromycin: Erythromycin, a CYP3A inhibitor, can inhibit the metabolism of nifedipine and increase the exposure to nifedipine during concomitant therapy. Blood pressure should be monitored and a reduction of the dose of nifedipine considered.

Antitubercular Drugs

Rifampin: Pretreatment of healthy volunteers with 600 mg/day rifampin p.o. decreased the exposure to oral nifedipine (20mcg/kg) to 13%. The exposure to intravenous nifedipine by the same rifampin treatment was decreased to 70%. Dose adjustment of nifedipine may be necessary if nifedipine is coadministered with rifampin.

Rifapentine: Rifapentine, as an inducer of CYP3A4, can decrease the exposure to nifedipine. A dose adjustment of nifedipine when coadministered with rifapentine should be considered.

Antiviral Drugs

Amprenavir, atanazavir, delavirine, fosamprinavir, indinavir, nelfinavir and ritonavir, as CYP3A inhibitors, can inhibit the metabolism of nifedipine and increase the exposure to nifedipine. Caution is warranted and clinical monitoring of patients recommended.

CNS Drugs

Nefazodone, a CYP3A inhibitor, can inhibit the metabolism of nifedipine and increase the exposure to nifedipine during concomitant therapy. Blood pressure should be monitored and a reduction of the dose of nifedipine considered.

Valproic acid may increase the exposure to nifedipine during concomitant therapy. Blood pressure should be monitored and a dose reduction of nifedipine considered.

Phenytoin: Nifedipine is metabolized by CYP3A4. Coadministration of nifedipine 10 mg capsule and 60 mg nifedipine coat-core tablet with phenytoin, an inducer of CYP3A4, lowered the AUC and Cmax of nifedipine by approximately 70%. When using nifedipine with phenytoin, the clinical response to nifedipine should be monitored and its dose adjusted if necessary.

Phenobarbitone and carbamazepine as inducers of CYP3A can decrease the exposure to nifedipine. Dose adjustment of nifedipine may be necessary if phenobarbitone, carbamazepine or phenytoin is coadministered.

Antiemetic Drugs

Dolasetron: In patients taking dolasetron by the oral or intravenous route and nifedipine, no effect was shown on the clearance of hydrodolasetron.

Immunosuppressive Drugs

Tacrolimus: Nifedipine has been shown to inhibit the metabolism of tacrolimus in vitro. Transplant patients on tacrolimus and nifedipine required from 26% to 38% smaller doses than patients not receiving nifedipine. Nifedipine can increase the exposure to tacrolimus. When nifedipine is coadministered with tacrolimus the blood concentrations of tacrolimus should be monitored and a reduction of the dose of tacrolimus considered.

Sirolimus: A single 60 mg dose of nifedipine and a single 10 mg dose of sirolimus oral solution were administered to 24 healthy volunteers. Clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions were not observed.

Glucose Lowering Drugs

Pioglitazone: Coadministration of pioglitazone for 7 days with 30 mg nifedipine ER administered orally q.d. for 4 days to male and female volunteers resulted in least square mean (90% CI) values for unchanged nifedipine of 0.83 (0.73 to 0.95) for Cmax and 0.88 (0.80 to 0.96) for AUC relative to nifedipine monotherapy. In view of the high variability of nifedipine pharmacokinetics, the clinical significance of this finding is unknown.

Rosiglitazone: Coadministration of rosiglitazone (4 mg b.i.d.) was shown to have no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine.

Metformin: A single dose metformin-nifedipine interaction study in normal healthy volunteers demonstrated that coadministration of nifedipine increased plasma metformin Cmax and AUC by 20% and 9%, respectively, and increased the amount of metformin excreted in urine. Tmax and half-life were unaffected. Nifedipine appears to enhance the absorption of metformin.

Miglitol: No effect of miglitol was observed on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nifedipine.

Repaglinide: Coadministration of 10 mg nifedipine with a single dose of 2 mg repaglinide (after 4 days nifedipine 10 mg t.i.d. and repaglinide 2 mg t.i.d.) resulted in unchanged AUC and Cmax values for both drugs.

Acarbose: Nifedipine tends to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glucose control. If nifedipine is coadministered with acarbose, blood glucose levels should be monitored carefully and a dose adjustment of nifedipine considered.

Drugs Interfering with Food Absorption

Orlistat: In 17 normal-weight subjects receiving orlistat 120 mg t.i.d. for 6 days, orlistat did not alter the bioavailability of 60 mg nifedipine (extended-release tablets).

Dietary Supplements

Grapefruit Juice: In healthy volunteers, a single dose coadministration of 250 mL double strength grapefruit juice with 10 mg nifedipine increased AUC and Cmax by factors of 1.35 and 1.13, respectively. Ingestion of repeated doses of grapefruit juice (5 x 200 mL in 12 hours) after administration of 20 mg nifedipine ER increased AUC and Cmax of nifedipine by a factor of 2.0. Grapefruit juice should be avoided by patients on nifedipine. The intake of grapefruit juice should be stopped at least 3 days prior to initiating patients on nifedipine.

Herbals

St. John’s Wort: Is an inducer of CYP3A4 and may decrease the exposure to nifedipine. Dose adjustment of nifedipine may be necessary if St. John’s Wort is coadministered.

CYP2D6 Probe Drug

Debrisoquine: In healthy volunteers, pretreatment with nifedipine 20 mg t.i.d. for 5 days did not change the metabolic ratio of hydroxydebrisoquine to debrisoquine measured in urine after a single dose of 10 mg debrisoquine. Thus, it is improbable that nifedipine inhibits in vivo the metabolism of other drugs that are substrates of CYP2D6.

OVERDOSAGE

Experience with nifedipine overdosage is limited. Symptoms associated with severe nifedipine overdosage include loss of consciousness, drop in blood pressure, heart rhythm disturbances, metabolic acidosis, hypoxia, cardiogenic shock with pulmonary edema. Generally, overdosage with nifedipine leading to pronounced hypotension calls for active cardiovascular support including monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory function, elevation of extremities, judicious use of calcium infusion, pressor agents and fluids. Clearance of nifedipine would be expected to be prolonged in patients with impaired liver function. Since nifedipine is highly protein bound, dialysis is not likely to be of any benefit; however, plasmapheresis may be beneficial.

There has been one reported case of massive overdosage with tablets of another extended-release formulation of nifedipine. The main effects of ingestion of approximately 4800 mg of nifedipine in a young man attempting suicide as a result of cocaine-induced depression was initial dizziness, palpitations, flushing, and nervousness. Within several hours of ingestion, nausea, vomiting, and generalized edema developed. No significant hypotension was apparent at presentation, 18 hours post ingestion. Blood chemistry abnormalities consisted of a mild, transient elevation of serum creatinine, and modest elevations of LDH and CPK, but normal SGOT. Vital signs remained stable, no electrocardiographic abnormalities were noted, and renal function returned to normal within 24 to 48 hours with routine supportive measures alone. No prolonged sequelae were observed.

The effect of a single 900 mg ingestion of nifedipine capsules in a depressed anginal patient on tricyclic antidepressants was loss of consciousness within 30 minutes of ingestion, and profound hypotension, which responded to calcium infusion, pressor agents, and fluid replacement. A variety of ECG abnormalities were seen in this patient with a history of bundle branch block, including sinus bradycardia and varying degrees of AV block. These dictated the prophylactic placement of a temporary ventricular pacemaker, but otherwise resolved spontaneously. Significant hyperglycemia was seen initially in this patient, but plasma glucose levels rapidly normalized without further treatment.

A young hypertensive patient with advanced renal failure ingested 280 mg of nifedipine capsules at one time, with resulting marked hypotension responding to calcium infusion and fluids. No AV conduction abnormalities, arrhythmias, or pronounced changes in heart rate were noted, nor was there any further deterioration in renal function.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Known hypersensitivity to nifedipine.

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