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Nexium (Esomeprazole Magnesium) - Warnings and Precautions

 
 



WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Symptomatic response to therapy with NEXIUM does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy.

 

Atrophic gastritis has been noted occasionally in gastric corpus biopsies from patients treated long-term with omeprazole, of which esomeprazole is an enantiomer.

 

Published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy like NEXIUM may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve [see Adverse Reactions (6.2) ].

Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.

Clostridium diffficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents. For more information specific to antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated for use in combination with NEXIUM, refer to WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections of those package inserts.

 

Avoid concomitant use of NEXIUM with clopidogrel. Clopidogrel is a prodrug. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is entirely due to an active metabolite. The metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite can be impaired by use with concomitant medications, such as esomeprazole that inhibit CYP2C19 activity. Concomitant use of clopidogrel with 40 mg esomeprazole reduces the pharmacological activity of clopidogrel. When using NEXIUM consider alternative anti-platelet therapy. [see Drug Interactions (7.3) and Pharmacokinetics (12.3) ]

 

Several published observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist, or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines. [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Adverse Reactions (6.2) ]

 

Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.

For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically. [See Adverse Reactions (6.2) ]

 

Drugs which induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as St John’s Wort or rifampin) can substantially decrease esomeprazole concentrations. [see Drug Interactions (7.3) ] Avoid concomitant use of NEXIUM with St John’s Wort, or rifampin.

 

Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to drug-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Providers should temporarily stop esomeprazole treatment before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g. for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary.

 

Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients. [see Drug Interactions (7.7) ]

 

 

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Pregnancy Category B

Reproductive studies in rats and rabbits with NEXIUM (esomeprazole) and multiple cohort studies in pregnant women with omeprazole use during the first trimester do not show an increased risk of congenital anomalies or adverse pregnancy outcomes. There are, however, no adequate and well controlled studies of NEXIUM use in pregnancy. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Esomeprazole is the s-isomer of omeprazole. In four population-based cohort studies that included 1226 women exposed during the first trimester of pregnancy to omeprazole there was no increased risk of congenital anomalies.

Reproductive studies with esomeprazole have been performed in rats at doses up to 57 times the human dose and in rabbits at doses up to 35 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus. [See Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology (13.2) ]

Reproductive studies conducted with omeprazole on rats at oral doses up to 56 times the human dose and in rabbits at doses up to 56 times the human dose did not show any evidence of teratogenicity. In pregnant rabbits, omeprazole at doses about 5.5 to 56 times the human dose produced dose-related increases in embryo-lethality, fetal resorptions, and pregnancy loss. In rats treated with omeprazole at doses about 5.6 to 56 times the human dose, dose-related embryo/fetal toxicity and postnatal developmental toxicity occurred in offspring.

 

Omeprazole concentrations have been measured in breast milk of one woman taking omeprazole 20 mg per day. However, the excretion of esomeprazole in milk has not been studied. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for NEXIUM in rat carcinogenicity studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

 

The safety and effectiveness of NEXIUM have been established in pediatric patients 1 to 17 years of age for short-term treatment (up to eight weeks) of GERD. The safety and effectiveness of NEXIUM have been established in pediatric patients 1 month to less than 1 year for short-term treatment (up to 6 weeks) of erosive esophagitis due to acid-mediated GERD. However, the safety and effectiveness of NEXIUM have not been established in patients less than 1 month of age.

1 to 17 years of age

Use of NEXIUM in pediatric and adolescent patients 1 to 17 years of age for short-term treatment (up to eight weeks) of GERD is supported by extrapolation of results from adequate and well-controlled studies for adults and safety and pharmacokinetic studies performed in pediatric and adolescent patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Dosage and Administration (2), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Clinical Studies (14.3) ]. The safety and effectiveness of NEXIUM for other pediatric uses have not been established.

Erosive esophagitis due to acid-mediated GERD in infants 1 month to less than one year of age

Use of NEXIUM in pediatric patients 1 month to less than 1 year of age for treatment (up to 6 weeks) of erosive esophagitis due to acid-mediated GERD is supported by extrapolation of results from adequate and well-controlled studies for adults and safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic studies performed in pediatric patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Dosage and Administration (2), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Clinical Studies, (14.3) ].

Symptomatic GERD in infants 1 month to less than one year of age

There was no statistically significant difference between NEXIUM and placebo in the rate of discontinuation due to symptom worsening in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled, treatment-withdrawal study of 98 patients ages 1 to 11 months, inclusive. Patients were enrolled if they had either a clinical diagnosis of suspected GERD, symptomatic GERD, or endoscopically proven GERD. Twenty of 98 enrolled patients underwent endoscopy, and 6 patients were found to have erosive esophagitis on endoscopy at baseline. All patients received NEXIUM Delayed-Release Oral Suspension once daily during a two-week, open-label phase of the study.

There were 80 patients who attained a pre-specified level of symptom improvement and who entered the double-blind phase, in which they were randomized in equal proportions to receive NEXIUM or placebo for the next four weeks. Efficacy was assessed by observing the time from randomization to study discontinuation due to symptom worsening during the four-week, treatment-withdrawal phase.

The following pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information was obtained in pediatric patients with GERD aged birth to less than one year of age. In infants (1 to 11 months old, inclusive) given NEXIUM 1 mg/kg once daily, the percent time with intragastric pH > 4 increased from 29% at baseline to 69% on Day 7, which is similar to the pharmacodynamic effect in adults [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2) ]. Apparent clearance (CL/F) increases with age in pediatric patients from birth to 2 years of age.

Neonates 0 to 1 month of age

Following administration of oral NEXIUM in neonates the geometric mean (range) for the apparent clearance (CL/F) was 0.55 L/h/kg (0.25-1.6 L/h/kg).

The safety and effectiveness of NEXIUM in neonates have not been established.

 

Of the total number of patients who received NEXIUM in clinical trials, 1459 were 65 to 74 years of age and 354 patients were ≥ 75 years of age.

No overall differences in safety and efficacy were observed between the elderly and younger individuals, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

 

 

Page last updated: 2013-02-22

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