: SYSTEMIC ABSORPTION OF NEOMYCIN OCCURS FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION AND TOXIC REACTIONS MAY OCCUR. Patients treated with neomycin should be under close clinical observation because of the potential toxicity associated with their use. NEUROTOXICITY (INCLUDING OTOTOXICITY) AND NEPHROTOXICITY FOLLOWING THE ORAL USE OF NEOMYCIN SULFATE HAVE BEEN REPORTED, EVEN WHEN USED IN RECOMMENDED DOSES. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEPHROTOXICITY, PERMANENT BILATERAL AUDITORY OTOTOXICITY AND SOMETIMES VESTIBULAR TOXICITY IS PRESENT IN PATIENTS WITH NORMAL RENAL FUNCTION WHEN TREATED WITH HIGHER DOSES OF NEOMYCIN AND/OR FOR LONGER PERIODS THAN RECOMMENDED. Serial, vestibular and audiometric tests, as well as tests of renal function, should be performed (especially in high-risk patients). THE RISK OF NEPHROTOXICITY AND OTOTOXICITY IS GREATER IN PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED RENAL FUNCTION. Ototoxicity is often delayed in onset and patients developing cochlear damage will not have symptoms during therapy to warn them of developing eighth nerve destruction and total or partial deafness may occur long after neomycin has been discontinued.
Neuromuscular blockage and respiratory paralysis have been reported following the oral use of neomycin. The possibility of the occurrence of neuromuscular blockage and respiratory paralysis should be considered if neomycin is administered, especially to patients receiving anesthetics, neuromuscular blocking agents such as tubocurarine, succinylcholine, decamethonium, or in patients receiving massive transfusions of citrate anticoagulated blood. If blockage occurs, calcium salts may reverse these phenomena but mechanical respiratory assistance may be necessary.
Concurrent and/or sequential systemic, oral or topical use of other aminoglycosides, including paromomycin and other potentially nephrotoxic and/or neurotoxic drugs such as bacitracin, cisplatin, vancomycin, amphotericin B, polymyxin B, colistin and viomycin, should be avoided because the toxicity may be additive.
Other factors which increase the risk of toxicity are advanced age and dehydration.
The concurrent use of neomycin with potent diuretics such as ethacrynic acid or furosemide should be avoided, since certain diuretics by themselves may cause ototoxicity. In addition, when administered intravenously, diuretics may enhance neomycin toxicity by altering the antibiotic concentration in serum and tissue.
Neomycin Sulfate Tablets, USP, for oral administration, contain neomycin which is an antibiotic obtained from the metabolic products of the actinomycete Streptomyces fradiae.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Neomycin Sulfate Tablets USP and other antibacterial drugs, Neomycin Sulfate Tablets USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Suppression of intestinal bacteria
Neomycin sulfate tablets are indicated as adjunctive therapy as part of a regimen for the suppression of the normal bacterial flora of the bowel, eg, preoperative preparation of the bowel. It is given concomitantly with erythromycin enteric-coated base (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Hepatic coma (portal-systemic encephalopathy
Neomycin sulfate has been shown to be effective adjunctive therapy in hepatic coma by reduction of the ammonia-forming bacteria in the intestinal tract. The subsequent reduction in blood ammonia has resulted in neurologic improvement.
Published Studies Related to Neomycin
A comparison of ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone with neomycin/polymyxin/hydrocortisone for otitis externa pain. [2007.05]
Ciprofloxacin 0.3%/dexamethasone 0.1% (CIP/DEX) and neomycin 0.35%(polymyxin B 10,000 IU/mL/hydrocortisone 1.0% (NPH) were compared for relief of pain in patients with acute otitis externa. Patients received 7 d of treatment with CIP/DEX twice daily or NPH 3 times daily... Overall, these results support greater pain relief attained over the first 3 d in patients with acute otitis externa treated with CIP/DEX compared with NPH and a rapid reduction in severe pain after initiation of treatment.
Prospective randomised single-blind controlled trial of glacial acetic acid versus glacial acetic acid, neomycin sulphate and dexamethasone spray in otitis externa and infected mastoid cavities. [2006.12]
OBJECTIVES: The literature reports the merits of antibacterial, antibiotic and steroid agents in treating otological infections but no controlled clinical trial has directly compared 2% glacial acetic acid (EarCalm; Stafford-Miller Ltd, Brentford, UK) against 2% glacial acetic acid, 0.1% dexamethasone and 3250 U/ml of neomycin sulphate (Otomize; Stafford-Miller Ltd) in the treatment of otitis externa and infected mastoid cavities... CONCLUSION: Glacial acetic acid, dexamethasone and neomycin sulphate is significantly more effective in treating otitis externa when compared with glacial acetic acid. This effect failed to be significant in the infected mastoid cavities group. We therefore recommend that in conjunction with aural toilet, antibiotic/steroid combination is more effective than an antibacterial agent for otitis externa. Larger numbers of infected mastoid cavities are required to be studied.
Ofloxacin otic drops vs neomycin-polymyxin B otic drops as prophylaxis against early postoperative tympanostomy tube otorrhea. [2006.12]
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of tympanostomy tube (TT) sequelae, tube otorrhea, and tube obstruction immediately postoperatively in patients receiving TT for otitis media and to compare patients receiving postoperative otic drops with controls... CONCLUSIONS: Nonpatency and otorrhea are the most frequent sequelae immediately following TT placement. Few studies have compared different treatment regimens in a randomized controlled trial. These results demonstrate that otic drops clearly provide benefit postoperatively in preventing TT plugging and otorrhea but primarily in patients who have middle ear fluid at the time of TT placement. In addition, consideration of drop choice should be based on patient tolerance and medication safety profiles.
Once-daily ofloxacin otic solution versus neomycin sulfate/polymyxin B sulfate/hydrocortisone otic suspension four times a day: a multicenter, randomized, evaluator-blinded trial to compare the efficacy, safety, and pain relief in pediatric patients with otitis externa. [2006.09]
CONCLUSION: In the treatment of OE in children, once-daily ofloxacin otic solution was as effective and safe as neomycin sulfate/polymyxin B sulfate/hydrocortisone otic suspension given four times daily. The two treatments provide rapid and comparable pain relief; however, ofloxacin otic solution does not have the risk of ototoxicity associated with neomycin and provides effective pain relief without adjunctive steroids.
Prophylaxis of irinotecan-induced diarrhea with neomycin and potential role for UGT1A1*28 genotype screening: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. [2006.09]
OBJECTIVE: Delayed-type diarrhea is a common side effect of irinotecan and is associated with a bacterial-mediated formation of the active irinotecan metabolite SN-38 from its glucuronide conjugate in the intestine. Based on a pilot study, we hypothesized that concomitant administration of the antibiotic neomycin would diminish exposure of the gut to SN-38 and ameliorate the incidence and severity of diarrhea... CONCLUSION: Our results do not suggest a major role for neomycin as prophylaxis for irinotecan-induced delayed-type diarrhea. It is suggested that the UGT1A1*28 genotype status could be used as a screening tool for a priori prevention of irinotecan-induced delayed-type diarrhea.
Clinical Trials Related to Neomycin
Effect of Neomycin on the Pharmacokinetics of Regorafenib [Completed]
Neomycin and Rifaximin Plus Neomycin in Treating Methane Positive Constipation Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Completed]
In this study the investigators aim to compare the efficacy of neomycin to a combination of
rifaximin and neomycin in the treatment of C-IBS subjects with methane on their breath test.
This study will be conducted in collaboration with Dr. John DiBaise at the Mayo Clinic in
Scottsdale, AZ and Dr. Satish Rao in Georgia Regents University in Augusta, GA.
Eradication of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria Through Antibiotics and Fecal Bacteriotherapy [Not yet recruiting]
This investigator initiated,international, multicenter open-label, randomized controlled
trial aims to assess whether a 5 day course of oral nonabsorbable antibiotics (colistin
sulfate 2 million IU per os 4x/day and neomycin sulfate 500 mg (salt) per os 4x/day )
followed by fecal microbiota transplantation (administered either via nasogastric
administration or via capsules) is effective at eradicating intestinal carriage of
beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenemase producing
Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). compared to no intervention (current standard of care) in adult
non-immunosuppressed patients .
Comparison Between Erythromycin and Neomycin Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy [Active, not recruiting]
Comparison between the efficacy of two different antibiotics in patients with overt hepatic
encephalopathy. The study is randomized, controlled and double-blinded.
Efficacy of the Combination Bismuth + Neomycin + Procaine in the Treatment of Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration [Completed]
To evaluate the efficacy of the product Bismu-Jet ® (bismuth tartrate and sodium, neomycin
sulfate and procaine hydrochloride) produced by EMS S / A compared to placebo in reducing
the signs and symptoms resulting from UAR in patients of both sexes, with age over 12 years.
Page last updated: 2007-10-18