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Neo-Synephrine Injection (Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Injection) - Summary


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NEO-SYNEPHRINE hydrochloride, brand of phenylephrine hydrochloride injection, is a vasoconstrictor and pressor drug chemically related to epinephrine and ephedrine.  
NEO-SYNEPHRINE hydrochloride is a synthetic sympathomimetic agent in sterile form for parenteral injection.

Neo-Synephrine (Phenylephrine) is indicated for the following:

NEO-SYNEPHRINE is intended for the maintenance of an adequate level of blood pressure during spinal and inhalation anesthesia and for the treatment of vascular failure in shock, shock-like states and drug induced hypotension or hypersensitivity. It is also employed to overcome paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, to prolong spinal anesthesia and as a vasoconstrictor in regional analgesia.

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Published Studies Related to Neo-Synephrine Injection (Phenylephrine Injection)

Comparison of intravenous ephedrine with phenylephrine for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure during elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. [2010.03]
Hypotension is a major concern of the anaesthetists whenever subarachnoid block is performed especially in obstetric patients. Vasopressors have been shown to be more effective at limiting spinal hypotension than other treatment of hypotension like preloading and left uterine displacement...

Wrapping of the legs versus phenylephrine for reducing hypotension in parturients having epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section: a prospective, randomized and double-blind study. [2009.10]
CONCLUSION: Wrapping of the legs is a nonpharmacological, prophylactic method with similar blood pressure control to repeated doses of phenylephrine during epidural anaesthesia for caesarean sections.

ED95 of phenylephrine to prevent spinal-induced hypotension and/or nausea at elective cesarean delivery. [2009.04]
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this trial was to determine the 95% effective dose (ED95) of phenylephrine by intermittent i.v. bolus, to prevent spinal-induced hypotension and/or nausea at elective cesarean delivery... CONCLUSION: The ED95 of phenylephrine, administered as intermittent boluses to prevent pre-delivery spinal-induced hypotension and/or nausea at elective cesarean delivery, is at least 122 microg (lower limit of the confidence interval). The safety of this dose warrants further studies.

Separate and additive mydriatic effects of lidocaine hydrochloride, phenylephrine, and cyclopentolate after intracameral injection. [2008.02]
PURPOSE: To assess the separate mydriatic effect of lidocaine hydrochloride (Xylocaine), cyclopentolate, and phenylephrine after intracameral injection and evaluate whether intracameral Xylocaine and phenylephrine without cyclopentolate provide sufficient pupil dilation for cataract surgery. SETTING: Department of Clinical Science/Ophthalmology, Umea University Hospital, Umea, Sweden... CONCLUSIONS: Xylocaine plus phenylephrine injected intracamerally gave adequate intraoperative pupil dilation in routine phacoemulsification surgery. Cyclopentolate administrated intracamerally had no immediate additive mydriatic effect to intracameral Xylocaine combined with phenylephrine.

Effect of different phenylephrine bolus doses for treatment of hypotension during spinal anaesthesia in patients undergoing elective caesarean section. [2015]
The efficacy of phenylephrine might be improved by giving doses higher than that traditionally used (100 µg)... Although the study may have been underpowered, initial phenylephrine bolus doses of 100 µg, 125 µg and 150 µg did not significantly differ in efficacy to treat post-spinal hypotension in these patients.

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Clinical Trials Related to Neo-Synephrine Injection (Phenylephrine Injection)

A Pilot Trial of Phenylephrine Versus Norepinephrine for Septic Shock in Critically Ill Patients [Recruiting]
Septic shock is a condition that is marked by severe infection causing hypotension requiring vasopressors to maintain adequate perfusion to vital organs. The Surviving Sepsis campaign, an international organization formed for the purpose of guiding the management of sepsis and septic shock, currently recommends norepinephrine as the first-choice vasopressor for septic shock. Phenylephrine, a vasopressor FDA-approved for use in septic shock, is recommended as an alternative vasopressor when septic shock is complicated by tachyarrhythmia to mitigate cardiac complications. This recommendation is based solely on experience with no scientific evidence to support this recommendation. The investigators will conduct an open-label randomized controlled trial (RCT) directly comparing phenylephrine and norepinephrine, two FDA-approved vasopressors that are both used in clinical practice for the management of septic shock. The investigators will perform this study with a population of patients that have septic shock to complete the following aims: Aim 1: Determine the incidence of tachyarrhythmias. Aim 2: Determine which vasopressor, phenylephrine or norepinephrine, is associated with a lower heart rate. Aim 3: Determine which vasopressor, phenylephrine or norepinephrine, is associated with a higher incidence of new tachyarrhythmias. Aim 4: Determine which vasopressor, phenylephrine or norepinephrine, is associated with less time in tachyarrhythmia. Aim 5: Determine which vasopressor, phenylephrine or norepinephrine, is associated with fewer complications, including cardiac complications. The investigators hypothesize that in this setting, phenylephrine will improve the management of septic shock when used as a "first choice" vasopressor by: 1. Decreasing the mean heart rate 2. Decreasing the incidence of new tachyarrhythmias 3. Decreasing the amount of time spent in tachyarrhythmia for patients who develop new onset and recurrent tachyarrhythmias 4. Decreasing the number of cardiac complications

Variable Rate Phenylephrine Infusion for Prevention of Spinal-induced Hypotension for Cesarean Delivery [Completed]
Rapid administration of crystalloid immediately after induction of spinal anesthesia (coload) to be more effective in terms of managing hypotension as compared to administering crystalloid before spinal anesthesia (preload). Phenylehrine infusion is a safe and effective way to reduce incidence and frequency of hypotension during SA for cesarean delivery. Hypotension was virtually eliminated by use of high-dose prophylactic phenylephrine infusion at a rate of 100 g/min and rapid crystalloid coload up to two liters (administration at the time of SA). However, incidence of reactive hypertension was frequent up to 47% with decrease in maternal heart rate (HR). This may raise concern in patients in whom increase of blood pressure may be detrimental, like chronic hypertension and in the presence of a compromised uteroplacental blood flow. A recent study found that infusing phenylephrine at a fixed rate of 75 and 100 ug/min is associated with more episodes of hypertension than placebo or the lower infusion rates of 25 and 50 ug/min respectively. However, there was no reduction in the number of physician interventions (phenylephrine boluses and stopping the infusion) needed to maintain maternal systolic blood pressure within 20% of baseline among all groups. Prophylactic fixed rate infusions may have limited application in clinical practice, and a variable rate (i. e. modifying the rate according to hemodynamics) has been advocated. The bolus administration of phenylephrine to treat hypotension is still commonly used, but requests multiple interventions from the anesthesiologists and is time consuming. Eighty patients scheduled for cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia will be assigned to one of two groups. Immediately after spinal injection, rapid crystalloid colaod of lactated Ringer of 15 mL/kg over a period of 10-15 min will be initiated. Patients in Group I will receive infusion of normal saline (placebo) and patients in group II variable infusion rate of phenylephrine started at 0. 75 ug/kg (close to the dose of 50 ug/min recommended for fixed infusion rate). The number of interventions needed to maintain maternal systolic blood pressure within 20% of baseline, hemodynamic performance, intraoperative nausea and vomiting, and umbilical cord blood gases will be compared between the two groups. We will define a reliable and safe method to ensure maternal hemodynamic stability during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery with the least physician interference.

Consumer Preference Study of Two Formulations of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride (Study CL2008-15)(P07530)(COMPLETED) [Completed]
This is a randomized, two-way crossover, multicenter study evaluating the consumer preference of Phenylephrine Extended Release Tablets, 30 mg to be taken as one tablet every 12 hours, or Phenylephrine Immediate Release Tablets, 10 mg to be taken as one tablet every 4 hours in subjects with at least mild allergic rhinitis and nasal congestion. Approximately 250 participants will complete a questionnaire after taking one test product for 3 days followed by a 3 day ( 1 day) washout period; and then taking the alternate test product for 3 days. Analysis of which product the consumer preferred, if any, and which product was more convenient, if any, will be evaluated.

Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride in Combination With Nasal Glucocorticosteroid for Perennial Allergic and Non-allergic Rhinitis in Subjects With Persistent Nasal Congestion [Terminated]
Nasal glucocorticosteroids (GCS) are considered first-line therapy for both allergic and non-allergic rhinitis. 1-3 Nasal congestion can persist despite maximum treatment with intranasal GCS. No other drugs are superior to intranasal GCS in relieving nasal congestion. For example, antihistamines are not effective in relieving congestion. 1 Oral decongestants are somewhat beneficial in relieving nasal congestion but can elevate blood pressure, cause restlessness, and cause urinary retention. Oxymetazoline, however, is a potent decongestant and the addition of it to a nasal GCS should add a considerable decongestant benefit. It may also be beneficial in patients with persistent nighttime congestion despite maximum dosages of nasal GCS. Oxymetazoline is currently recommended for three days use because of the proposed risk of rhinitis medicamentosa,4 which is increased nasal congestion caused by prolonged use of nasal decongestant sprays. 5-8 The term RM was coined early in the twentieth century after several case reports described patients developing rebound congestion after using first generation intranasal decongestants such as privine hydrochloride and ephedrine for prolonged periods6,7. The histopathology and mechanism of RM has been based on animal models which may not be pertinent to humans. 9-13 Studies using oxymetazoline, a newer intranasal decongestant, in individuals without rhinitis have shown conflicting evidence for the development of RM. 14-16 For example, normal individuals without rhinitis using oxymetazoline three times daily for four weeks did not develop RM. 17 Also, it is unknown the frequency of administration and dosage of oxymetazoline it takes to induce RM or whether RM is just a return to a patient's baseline nasal congestion as present before beginning oxymetazoline. It is also unknown whether RM is more likely or only occurs with older vasoconstrictors such as privine hydrochloride and ephedrine rather than oxymetazoline. Nasal GCS reduce the amount of rebound congestion in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis who have reportedly developed RM. 18 Nasal GCS decrease nasal mucosa edema, recruitment of neutrophils and mononuclear cells, cytokine production, and late-phase nasal mediators. 19-21 They may offer a protective benefit from the risk of developing RM. Oxymetazoline may also decrease inferior turbinate hypertrophy thereby permitting better adsorption of the nasal GCS. Hypothesis The addition of oxymetazoline to a nasal GCS for fourteen days will decrease the amount of congestion in subjects with allergic or non-allergic rhinitis with persistent congestion despite maximum recommended dosages of a nasal GCS. It is also hypothesized that nasal GCS protect against the development of RM secondary to oxymetazoline.

Effectiveness of Oxymetazoline Added on Nasal Steroid in Rhinitis With Persistent Nasal Obstruction [Completed]
Background Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem with a worldwide prevalence is 10-25%, and poses significant impact on the quality of life of the patients. In Thailand, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in the general population is 13. 5%, of which the frequency of allergic rhinitis increased from 23% to 38% in the children, and 61. 9% in the graduate students. Despite intranasal steroid being the current first-line treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, only 60% of patients achieve excellent control. Persistent nasal congestion is the major symptom which is difficult to control in these patients. Data are limited about efficacy and safety of the additional use of 0. 05% intranasal oxymetazoline hydrochloride (OXY) for persistent nasal congestion that does not adequately respond to recommended doses of intranasal steroid (INS) and oral antihistamine(OAH). Objective To determine the efficacy and safety of the additional use of OXY for persistent nasal congestion in allergic rhinitis or non-allergic rhinitis patients inadequately controlled by combination treatment with INS and OAH. Methods The investigators performed a 6-week, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, clinical trial in 50 patients with allergic rhinitis or non-allergic rhinitis whom inadequately controlled by combination treatment with INS and oral antihistamine (OAH). After an initial screening, qualified individuals were randomized into 2 groups including the treatment group and the control group. The treatment group received the INS (2 puffs in each nostril twice daily) and OAH (1 tablet once daily) plus OXY (2 puffs in each nostril twice daily) The control group received INS (2 puffs in each nostril twice daily) and OAH (1 tablet once daily) plus placebo (2 puffs in each nostril twice daily).

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Page last updated: 2015-08-10

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