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Narcan (Naloxone Hydrochloride) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Overdosage, etc

 
 



DRUG INTERACTIONS

Drug Interactions

Large doses of naloxone are required to antagonize buprenorphine since the latter has a long duration of action due to its slow rate of binding and subsequent slow dissociation from the opioid receptor. Buprenorphine antagonism is characterized by a gradual onset of the reversal effects and a decreased duration of action of the normally prolonged respiratory depression. The barbiturate methohexital appears to block the acute onset of withdrawal symptoms induced by naloxone in opiate addicts.

OVERDOSAGE

There is limited clinical experience with NARCAN overdosage in humans.

Adult Patients

In one small study, volunteers who received 24 mg/70 kg did not demonstrate toxicity. In another study, 36 patients with acute stroke received a loading dose of 4 mg/kg (10 mg/m2/min) of NARCAN followed immediately by 2 mg/kg/hr for 24 hours. Twenty-three patients experienced adverse events associated with naloxone use, and naloxone was discontinued in seven patients because of adverse effects. The most serious adverse events were: seizures (2 patients), severe hypertension (1), and hypotension and/or bradycardia (3).

At doses of 2 mg/kg in normal subjects, cognitive impairment and behavioral symptoms, including irritability, anxiety, tension, suspiciousness, sadness, difficulty concentrating, and lack of appetite have been reported. In addition, somatic symptoms, including dizziness, heaviness, sweating, nausea, and stomachaches were also reported. Although complete information is not available, behavioral symptoms were reported to often persist for 2-3 days.

Pediatric Patients

Up to 11 doses of 0.2 mg of naloxone (2.2 mg) have been administered to children following overdose of diphenoxylate hydrochloride with atropine sulfate. Pediatric reports include a 2-1/2 year-old child who inadvertently received a dose of 20 mg of naloxone for treatment of respiratory depression following overdose with diphenoxylate hydrochloride with atropine sulfate. The child responded well and recovered without adverse sequelae. There is also a report of a 4-1/2 year-old child who received 11 doses during a 12-hour period, with no adverse sequelae.

Patient Management

Patients who experience a NARCAN overdose should be treated symptomatically in a closely supervised environment. Physicians should contact a poison control center for the most up-to-date patient management information.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

NARCAN is contraindicated in patients known to be hypersensitive to naloxone hydrochloride or to any of the other ingredients in NARCAN.

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

NARCAN is an opioid antagonist. Physical dependence associated with the use of NARCAN has not been reported. Tolerance to the opioid antagonist effect of NARCAN is not known to occur.

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