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Myleran (Busulfan) - Summary



MYLERAN is a potent drug. It should not be used unless a diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia has been adequately established and the responsible physician is knowledgeable in assessing response to chemotherapy.

MYLERAN can induce severe bone marrow hypoplasia. Reduce or discontinue the dosage immediately at the first sign of any unusual depression of bone marrow function as reflected by an abnormal decrease in any of the formed elements of the blood. A bone marrow examination should be performed if the bone marrow status is uncertain.




MYLERAN (busulfan) is a bifunctional alkylating agent. Busulfan is not a structural analog of the nitrogen mustards. MYLERAN is available in tablet form for oral administration. Each film-coated tablet contains 2 mg busulfan and the inactive ingredients hypromellose, lactose (anhydrous), magnesium stearate, pregelatinized starch, triacetin, and titanium dioxide. The activity of busulfan in chronic myelogenous leukemia was first reported by D.A.G. Galton in 1953.

MYLERAN (busulfan) is indicated for the palliative treatment of chronic myelogenous (myeloid, myelocytic, granulocytic) leukemia.

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Published Studies Related to Myleran (Busulfan)

Clofarabine +/- fludarabine with once daily i.v. busulfan as pretransplant conditioning therapy for advanced myeloid leukemia and MDS. [2011.06]
Although a combination of i.v...

Randomized trial of two different conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation in thalassemia--the role of busulfan pharmacokinetics in determining outcome. [2005.11]
In total, 94 patients with homozygous beta thalassemia were randomized to two different conditioning regimens: busulfan 600 mg/m2 + cyclophosphamide 200 mg/kg or busulfan 16 mg/kg + cyclophosphamide 200 mg/kg and antilymphocyte globulin (47 in each group), for bone marrow transplantation, to see whether increased myeloablation or increased immunosuppression would reduce rejection...

Randomized trial of busulfan vs total body irradiation containing conditioning regimens for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium study. [2003.09]
Conditioning regimens for children with ALL have generally included total body irradiation (TBI), which may result in significant sequelae. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome for children with ALL undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) with either busulfan (Bu) or TBI regimens...

Busulfan plus cyclophosphamide compared with total-body irradiation plus cyclophosphamide before marrow transplantation for myeloid leukemia: long-term follow-up of 4 randomized studies. [2001.12.15]
In the early 1990s, 4 randomized studies compared conditioning regimens before transplantation for leukemia with either cyclophosphamide (CY) and total-body irradiation (TBI), or busulfan (Bu) and CY. This study analyzed the long-term outcomes for 316 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and 172 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who participated in these 4 trials, now with a mean follow-up of more than 7 years...

Increased risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease, obstructive bronchiolitis, and alopecia with busulfan versus total body irradiation: long-term results of a randomized trial in allogeneic marrow recipients with leukemia. Nordic Bone Marrow Transplantation Group. [1999.04.01]
Leukemic patients receiving marrow from HLA-identical sibling donors were randomized to treatment with either busulfan 16 mg/kg (n = 88) or total body irradiation ([TBI] n = 79) in addition to cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg. The patients were observed for a period of 5 to 9 years... In patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in first chronic phase, 7-year LFS was 72% and 83% in the two groups, respectively.

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Clinical Trials Related to Myleran (Busulfan)

Phase II Trial of a Chemotherapy Alone Regimen of IV Busulfan (Busulfex), Melphalan and Fludarabine as Myeloablative Regimen Followed by an Allogeneic T-Cell Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant From an HLA-Identical, or HLA-Non Identical Related or Unrelated Donor [Active, not recruiting]
The purpose of this research study is:(1) to determine if high doses of chemotherapy without total body irradiation can allow selected stem cells to take and grow,(2) to determine if selected stem cells from the blood or marrow can take and not cause a complication called graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and (3) to evaluate the side effects of the combination of chemotherapy drugs used for these transplants. In the last 10 years we have developed chemotherapy combinations to be used for this T-cell depleted transplant protocol. By using three chemotherapy drugs (IV busulfan, melphalan and fludarabine), we hope to have a good chemotherapy combination to kill cancer cells, and to make the graft take, without the side effects of total body irradiation. The chemotherapy drugs to be tested in this protocol are busulfan, melphalan and fludarabine, all of which have been used successfully for stem cell transplantation, but not given together as in this specific regimen. This is what is being tested in this study.

Our initial trials in the 1980's with T-cell depleted transplants showed less GvHD, but the overall results of the transplants were not better. The reason for this was that the stem cells did not take and engraft in 15% of our adult patients. This failure of the stem cells to take can leave patients without bone marrow or blood cells necessary for life. Most stem cell transplants were done using bone marrow (BMA) obtained from the donors. However, if we give a medication called G-CSF by shots to the donor, we can collect peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and use them for transplant. The advantage of this approach is that we can collect 2-20 times more stem cells than that obtained from the marrow. It has been proven that a larger number of stem cells in the graft make it more difficult for the patient to reject the stem cells. Some donors may be too small to provide peripheral blood stem cells or they may not want to take G-CSF shots. In these cases the donors will have their marrow collected in the operating room under general anesthesia.

Stem cell transplants can lead to a condition known as acute graft-versus-host disease or GvHD. This disease is caused by an assault by certain cells in the marrow or blood (T-cells) of the donor (graft) against your body (the host). These T-cells see your body as foreign and attack it. The disease causes a skin rash, liver disease, and diarrhea. Methods were developed at this institution to prevent GvHD. These methods take out most of the T-cells (responsible for GvHD) from the marrow or blood stem cells before transplant. This is called "T-cell depletion" or "stem cell selection". In this hospital, we use two types of methods of T-cell depletion: one method is used with peripheral blood stem cells and one for bone marrow. Both these techniques have been successful in preventing both acute and chronic GvHD. You will receive a T-cell depleted stem cell transplant.

Plerixafor and Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor (G-CSF) With Busulfan, Fludarabine and Thymoglobulin [Recruiting]
The goal of this clinical research study is to learn about the safety of AMD3100 (plerixafor) and G-CSF (filgrastim) in combination with fludarabine, busulfan, and an allogeneic blood stem cell transplant. This treatment will be studied in patients with AML, MDS, or CML.


Primary Objective:

1. To determine the safety of Plerixafor and Filgrastim (G-CSF) in combination with busulfan, fludarabine and allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation for treatment of advanced myeloid leukemias.

2. Determine biologic effects of Plerixafor and G-CSF on leukemia cells.

3. To determine if the combination of Plerixafor and G-CSF with busulfan, fludarabine will improve progression free survival post allogeneic stem cell transplantation from an HLA-compatible donor compared to historical controls receiving busulfan-fludarabine alone.

Secondary Objectives:

1. To determine the time to engraftment, the rate and severity of GVHD, and immune reconstitution.

Vorinostat With Gemcitabine, Busulfan, and Melphalan With Stem Cell Transplant (SCT) in Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoid Malignancies [Recruiting]
The goal of this clinical research study is to find the highest tolerable dose of vorinostat that can be given with gemcitabine, busulfan, and melphalan with a stem cell transplant. Researchers also want to learn about the safety and level of effectiveness of this combination.

Busulfan and melphalan are designed to kill cancer cells by binding to DNA (the genetic material of cells), which may cause cancer cells to die.

Gemcitabine is designed to disrupt the growth of cancer cells, which may cause cancer cells to die. It may help to increase the effect of busulfan and melphalan on cancer cells by not allowing these cells to repair the DNA damage caused by busulfan or melphalan.

Vorinostat is designed to open up the DNA and allow greater access to drugs that bind to DNA, such as gemcitabine, busulfan and melphalan.

Gemcitabine Plus Busulfan, Melphalan and Hematopoietic Cell Transplant for Advanced Lymphoid Malignancies [Recruiting]
The goal of this clinical research study is to find the highest tolerated dose of gemcitabine that can be given with busulfan and melphalan. The safety of this drug combination will also be studied.

Busulfan Plus Melphalan Versus Melphalan [Recruiting]
The goal of this clinical research study is to compare Busulfex (busulfan) with or without Alkeran (melphalan) to learn which study therapy may be better at helping to control MM in patients who will receive an autologous stem cell transplant. The safety of this combination therapy will also be studied.

Melphalan and busulfan are designed to damage the DNA (genetic material) of cells, which may cause cancer cells to die.

more trials >>

Page last updated: 2011-12-09

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